2ndlook

Destruction of Takshashila – a defining moment

Posted in Current Affairs, European History, History, Indo Pak Relations, language, Media by Anuraag Sanghi on August 4, 2009

The theory that Huns destroyed Takshashila in 5th century is a theory with no legs – and a case without evidence. So … then what could have happened?
Julian (?) Monastery, Takshashila

Julian Monastery, Takshashila

The importance of Takshashila

As the oldest university in the world, Takshashila has a special place in the history of the world. More so, in Indian history. It’s destruction (purportedly) at the hands of the Hunas, as proposed by Western historians (and their followers) has been rather facile  – to say the least.

There is evidence that the truth may be otherwise. This post lays out an alternative scenario, but before that let us refresh ourselves with the history of Takshashila.

Takshashila in classical texts, history, geography

The Vayu Purana traces the start of Takshashila, to Taksha, son of  Bharata (brother of Raghu Ram Chandra). Takshashila also finds a mention in Mahabharata – citing Dhaumya, as the acharya of Takshashila. It was at Takshashila, that Vaishampayana made the first recorded narration of the Mahabharata to Janmajeya.

The Gitopdesha from the Mahbharata

The Gitopdesha from the Mahbharata

It finds continued mentions in numerous Jatakas, too. For centuries, across many cultures, stories of Takshashila (and its environs) swirled, like even later,

According to a story contained in the Mujma-t-Tawarikh a twelfth-century Persian translation from the Arabic version of a lost Sanskrit work, thirty thousand Brahmans with their families and retinue had in ancient times been collected from all over India and had been settled in Sindh, under Duryodhana, the King of Hastinapur. (from Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World By André Wink).

The Buddhist anthology of storiesAvadana-shataka mentions that “3.510 millions of stupas were erected at the request of the people of Taxila”.

Students paid upto 1000 coins in advance to receive education at Takshashila – and there were thousands of such students. Students came from all over the world – and paid large sums of money to Indian teachers for education! Kings, brahmans, commoners – all came to study at Takshashila. Its alumni included all the stars of the Indian firmament – Atreya, Pasenadi, Mahali, Patanajali, Jivaka, Panini, Kautilaya, Prasenjita.

Its development and importance lay in the fact that,

Takshashila and Purushpura on either side of the Sindhu river were connected with the Indian trade routes on the Indian side and Central Asian trade routes on the other. Strategically located, Takshashila, the capital of Gandhar, was the terminus of several inland routes and the starting points of the great trade routes connecting India and Central Asia. (from India and Central Asia By J. N. Roy, Braja Bihārī Kumāra, Astha Bharati (Organization)).

Based on subsequent excavation and diggings, it is thought that Takshashila was the oldest city in South Asia – when Alexander landed there. So Takshashila’s historic and cultural importance is too high to become a victim of slip-shod colonial propaganda – posing as history.

Faxian, Fa Hian, Fa Hien

Faxian, Fa Hian, Fa Hien

Chinese travellers to India

An important source for ‘modern’ history, much used by Western historians are the travels of Chinese travellers (like Fa Hian/ Faxain, Huien Tsang /XuanZang). Supposedly 1000 years after death of Gautama Buddha, overlooking some gaping holes in Fa Hian’s travelogue.

How could Fa Hien miss meeting /mentioning Kalidasa – supposedly a contemporary of Fa Hien? In fact, Kalidasa is not mentioned at all in Fa Hian’s account, which supports the hypotheses that Kalidasa preceded Fa Hian. It may be pointed out that since, Kalidasa’s works are artistic rather than religious or philosophical, the lack of Fa Hain’s interest in his works is obvious. But to ignore a man of Kalidasa’s stature and learning?

Then Fa Hian misses the name of the supposed ruling ‘Gupta’ king – a dynasty which ruled over most of South Asia! And it is Fa Hian who is supposedly a significant authority on the Gupta period. Western history labelled the Gupta period as the ‘golden age’ of Indian history – which Fa Hian seems to have completely missed. Similarly when Fa-Hien visited Takshashila in 5th century AD (travelled in India during 399-414 AD), he found nothing. His travelogue makes some cursory mentions of Takshashila.

And that leaves Indian history with some rather big ‘dating’ holes! Is it that Fa hian visited India much after Kalidasa, the Gupta dynasty, the death of Buddha? Maybe a few centuries later, relative to the period in Indian history. Fa Hian’s date is well indexed. So that possibly cannot move much. It is the the corresponding Indic dates which come into question!

Another Chinese traveller, Sung Yun, who had a rather exalted view of his country and its ruler, is largely responsible for overly negative image of the Hunas in ‘modern’ history. Sung-Yun’s peeve – the Huna king did not read the letter from the Wei Tartar king standing, but in a seated position. A modern historian writing on the spread of Buddhism and Buddhist traveller’s tales thinks that,

Like most things India it (Buddhism) suffered somewhat from the invasions of the Huns, who dominated many parts of the northwest from 480 to 530; but the immediate effect of their depredations does not seem to have been very striking. At any rate, the Chinese pilgrim Sung Yun, who travelled through this region in 518-21, gives us a picture in which Buddhism is quite as thriving as it was in Fa-Hien’s time. (from The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and a Buddhist Pilgrimage By James Bissett Pratt, page 111)

Subsequent Chinese travellers to India like I Ching (I Ching or Yi Jing, Yìjìng, Yiqing, I-Tsing or YiChing), were more about Buddhism the religion that it had become, instead of a school of learning and thought. I Ching also recorded details of the works and life of Bhartrhari, the (probably) 5th century grammarian and poet. His take away from India, from Nalanda “in ten years (A.D. 675-685), during which he collected there some 400 Sanskrit texts amounting to 500,000 slokas.”

The ‘end’ of Takshashila

The colonial narrative traces the destruction of Takshashila in 499 AD, by the Hunas (Western history calls them White Huns, Romans called them Ephtalites; Arabs called them the Haytal;  The Chinese Ye Tha). Western ‘historians’ have ascribed the demise of Taxila to the White Huns, a Central Asian, nomadic tribe, roaming between Tibet to Tashkent, practicing polyandry.

Taksashila

Takshashila

Takshashila lying at the cross roads of the Uttarapatha (West calls it The Silk Route) – from Tibet, China, Central Asia, Iran – and India, fell to this mindless savagery, goes the ‘modern’ narrative. But specifically, there is no mention in Chinese, Persian, Indian texts (that I could find) of the Hunas who destroyed Takshashila. So, how and where did this story spring from?

Kanishka, a major Buddhist king, was a Yue Chi, known as Tusharas in India, related to the White Huns. Why would his tribal cousins destroy Takshashila?

History as propaganda

We have the ‘imaginative genius’ of Sir John Marshall to thank for this – a man who was “interested in Alexander’s campaign and in Graeco-Buddhist monuments at Sanchi and Taxila.” Sir John, who was “filled with enthusiasm for anything Greek” was also aware that it was at “Taxila that Alexander the Great halted and refreshed his army before advancing to do battle with Porus.” Not one to stoop below self-aggrandisement, he counts himself among the “few archaeologists now living who have devoted as many years to the excavation of a single site as I have devoted to Taxila.” He lays out the ground for the ‘destroyer White Huns’ theory, describing how

the hordes of Ephthalites or White Huns which swept over Gandhara and the Panjab in the third quarter of the fifth century, carrying ruin and desolation wherever they went. (from Taxila – an illustrated account of archaeological excavations By Sir John Marshall page 76).

Barbara Cartland and Mortimer Wheeler - both imaginative

Barbara Cartland and Mortimer Wheeler - both imaginative

And his evidence for this destruction is,

Thirty two coins, all of them silver, leave no room for doubt it was it was the White Huns who were responsible for the wholesale destruction of the Buddhist sangharamas of Taxila … several skeletons of those who fell in the fight, including one of White Hun, were lying. (ellipsis mine; from Taxila by Sir John Marshall page 791).

Join the gang!

A chorus of historians joined in Sir John’s smear campaign (published between 1940-1951) against the White Huns who were ‘guilty’ of ‘destruction of Takshashila’. Sir John lays the burden of guilt at the doorstep of the Hunas (Western history calls them White Huns, Romans called them Ephtalites; Arabs called them the Haytal;  The Chinese Ye Tha). Not surprising, since both ,

“Indian and foreign archaeologists often invoked invasion /diffusion as tools for explaining away the origins of fully-fledged archaeological cultures ranging in age from the Lower Paleolithic to the early historic period as well as individual traits concerning pottery, technology and other aspects. Africa, West and Central Asia and Europe were the favourite source areas. (From Theory in Archaeology: A World Perspective By Peter J. Ucko, page 132)

Lower Paleolithic is about 250,000 years ago and early historic period in India is 3000 years ago. Based on traveller’s tall tales, we have ‘modern’ historians who have depicted, without any evidence, that the

the White Huns, or Hephtalites, felt a kind of hatred toward Buddhism and strove to destroy all its physical as well as mental manifestations during the fifth century. This is how Taxila brutally vanished. (from Books on fire: the destruction of libraries throughout history By Lucien X. Polastron, Jon Graham page 107-108).

And this is from a book which claims to be a “historical survey of the destruction of knowledge from ancient Babylon and China to modern times”. Another book seeking to capture Central Asian history writes that these Hunas, who came,

sacking monasteries and works of art, and ruining the fine Greco-Buddhic civilization which by then was five centuries old. Persian and Chinese texts agree in their descriptions of the tyranny and vandalism of this horde.” (from The Empire of the Steppes By Rene Grousset, Naomi Walford).

It has been pointed out that

Although the exact relationship between the Buddhist communities of the Peshawar basin and the new Hun dynasty is not entirely clear, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Buddhism continued under Hun rule … (there is) textual evidence to show that Chinese Buddhist pilgrims continued to visit Gandharan sites in the Peshawar Basin into the early sixth century C.E.; The Bhamala main stupa can be compared to the 7th to 8th century cruciform stupas in Kashmir, Afghanistan, and other parts of Central Asia. (from The Buddhist architecture of Gandhāra By Kurt A. Behrendt pages 207-209).

Technically, it was also pointed out that Sir John did not stratify his digs, which creates a dating and sequencing problem. Going with self-aggrandizing nature, Sir John also focussed on ‘glamourous digs’ – without focussing on the connectivity issues.

Alexander in colonial historical narrative

For more on the decline of Takshashila, it is Alexander that we must turn to.

The Alexander mosaic, discovered in Pompeii

The 'Alexander mosaic', discovered in Pompeii

Alexander has long been a vital cog in Western colonial narrative of history. Alexander’s halo gave bragging rights – first to the Greco-Romans and then to the Euro-colonialists.

The American Department of Defense, in its Legacy Program, has a section on Cultural Heritage Training. The use of Alexander’s mythos there is self evident. Between the Greco-Roman historians and the Euro-Colonialists, has sprung an entire industry, to create a mythos surrounding Alexander.

Amongst Alexander’s first actions in India were his attempts to cobble up alliances. His most famous one was with Ambhi – the ruler of Taxila. In India, Alexander had to pay the King of Taxiles, Omphis, (Ambi) 1000 talents of gold (more than 25 tons of gold) – to secure an alliance. To cement this alliance, Alexander ‘gifted’ Ambhi with ‘a wardrobe of Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, and 30 horses, 1000 talents in cash’. 1000 talents is anywhere between 25,000-60,000 kg of gold! Does this look like Ambhi accepted Alexander as the conqueror of the world – or Alexander ‘persuading’ Ambhi to seal an alliance?

The payment of 1000 talents in gold to Ambhi aroused much envy and outrage in Alexander’s camp. It prompted Meleager, to sarcastically congratulate Alexander for ‘having at least found in India a man worth 1000 talents.’ What seals this incident is Alexander’s retort to Meleager, “that envious men only torment themselves.” (C 8.12.17 & 18).

Black and blue

Instead of the complete capitulation and collaboration that Alexander got from the defeated Achaemenid ruling family of Sisygambis, Stateira, Oxathres (brother of Darius III; also written as oxoathres and oxyathres) et al, the foursome of Bessos, Spitamenes, Datafernes and the Scythians made Alexander’s life miserable. At Gaugamela, it was Bessos and his Indian cavalry, which broke Alexander’s formations. As a 19th century historian reports,

During the three years anterior to the passage of the Indus, Balk (Bactria) was usually Alexander’s headquarters. It was in these countries that he experienced his only serious reverses in the field. (from On the practicability of an invasion of British India By Sir George De Lacy Evans).

The tribes and kshatrapas (satraps) of Indian North West swath, delayed Alexander for nearly three years – before he could step into India. In India, Alexander had to pay the King of Taxiles, Omphis, (Ambi) 1000 talents of gold (more than 25 tons of gold) – to secure an alliance. He had to return the kingdom of Punjab to Porus – purportedly, after winning the battle. His loot and pickings from India were negligible.

To these lean pickings, Alexander’s reaction“the Macedonians frequently massacred the defenders of the city, especially in India.” What was Alexander’s response to a ‘sub-continent occupied by a complex network of peoples and states, who viewed Alexander as a new piece to be played in their complex political chess game.’ Another modern historian, an expert on Greek history writes that ‘the tale of slaughter told in the ancient sources is unparalleled elsewhere in the campaign.’ ( from Ancient Greece By Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan).

The Indian reaction

Alexander and the Indian 'Gymnosophists' - Medieval European drawing

Alexander and the Indian 'Gymnosophists' - Medieval European drawing

Alexander’s massacres in India, a colonial historian informs us (without naming a source), earned him an “epithet … assigned (to) him by the Brahmins of India, The Mighty Murderer.” This Indian Brahmanic characterization of Alexander, commonly taught to English schoolchildren and present in Eglish college texts, as The Mighty Murderer, curiously disappeared from Western-English texts soon after 1860 – and instead now “a positive rose-tinted aura surrounds Alexander” … !

Greek writers report, that Alexander finally realized that it was the Indian Brahmins who had influenced Indian princes to organize and support the Indian war against Alexander. Greek sources cite, after this realization, at ‘The City of Brahmans’, Alexander massacred an estimated 8000-10,000 of these non-combatant Brahmans. His question-answer sessions with the 10 Indian-prisoners-Brahmans (called Gymnosophists by the Greeks), related by Plutarch, shows Alexander asking inane questions – at sea, completely lost.

And arising from this frustration, came Alexander’s wanton massacres at Takshashila – which thereafter limped along for the next 1000 years, but never to fully recover.

Takshashila – the pattern!

One must also recall that Alexander’s behaviour in Babylon – a intellectual freeport, city ‘under the protection’ of code of ‘kidinnu’. The code of ‘kidinnu’ allowed creation of sanctuaries where weapons and arms were not allowed. The religious persecution by Alexander of the Zoroastrians (as per the Zoroastrian accounts) bears out Alexander’s wanton cruelty. As a modern researcher, Jona Lendering writes,

the Zoroastrian tradition is unanimous that Alexander ‘killed several high priests and judges and priests and the masters of the Magians and upholders of the religion’ (Book of Arda Wiraz 1.9),  ‘quenched many sacred fires’ (Great Bundahishn 33.14) and ’caused great devastation (Denkard 4.16 and 7.7.3). This ‘evil-destined and raging villain’ (Denkard 8.pr.20) was not just regarded as a collaborator of Angra Mainyu, but as one one of the calamities that the evil one had sent to earth to destroy what is good. Alexander even received the surname Guzastag, the Accursed, a title that had until then only been used to describe Angra Mainyu. It is possible -perhaps even likely- that several apocalyptic texts from the Avesta were composed during the reign of Alexander.

BCHP 1: Alexander Chronicle (obverse; **) Photo coutesy livius.com

BCHP 1: Alexander Chronicle (obverse; **) Photo coutesy livius.org

A set of Babylonian tablets, published in 1975, the Alexander Chronicles, mention that Alexander killed Kidinnu – most probably the famed Babylonian astronomer.

The name Kidinnu itself seems to be derived from the Sanskritic word, ‘Krishna’, the Dark One. Was Kidinnu better known by his assumed Sanskritic name? The Indo-Assyrian collaboration, represented by the Babylonian texts and schools give significant weight to this hypotheses.

More questions on the destruction of Takshashila

At the time of Takshashila’s decline in the 5th century, a significant Gupta king was Purugupta – successor of Skandagupta. Written records from Purugupta’s reign are few and far in between, he has been variously named as Vikramaditya, Prakashaditya and of course as Puru /Pura Gupta.

The most authentic link to his reign is the Bhitari seal inscription, (near Ghazipur, in modern UP). The Bhitari seal provided proof of an elongated Gupta reign – than the Skandagupta-was-the-end-of-Gupta dynasty dating. Currently dated between 467 AD, Purugupta’s reign saw many border wars.

Purugupta’s reign saw Vasubandhu, a known teacher of logic and debate, become famous and Huien Tsang reported on the debates based on Vasubandhu’s texts. Today Vasubandhu’s texts exist in Chinese and Tibetan languages – the original Sanskrit volumes remain untraceable. Purugupta also restored the gold grammage in the ‘suvarna’ coins, probably debased in Skandagupta’s time, possibly due to the cost of the fighting the Hunas.

Is it that the Porus identified by the Greeks, Purugupta? Were the marauding soldiers, mentioned in Chinese texts, mercenary soldiers hired by Alexander to replace the ‘deserting’ Greek’ soldiers, on the eve of his Indian ‘campaign’? The dating of the Gupta dynasty to end of the 5th century AD, is probably off by about 800 years.

The Indian defence system

Taksashila’s destruction raises an obvious question! And also important. What did Indian polity do to defend centres of excellence like Takshashila?

To protect such a vibrant and important centre of leaning, the Indian polity had evolved a complex structure across the entire North Western swath. Thus while, within the Indic area, borders and crowns kept changing and shifting, invaders were kept at bay. A system of alliances supporting frontline kingdoms in the entire North West Indian swath was formulated.

For instance, against the Assyrian invasion, led by Semiramis, a minor Indian king, Stabrobates, was supported to beat back the Assyrian invasion. Against Cyrus the Great, Tomyris, a Scythian Queen was supported to massacre Persian invaders. Alexander’s nightmare began immediately, as soon as he crossed from the Persian area into the area governed by the Medes – an Indic area.

Death of Crassus

Death of Crassus

A symbol of these alliances, for instance, was the House of Suren’s traditional rights to install the crown of Persian rulers. Some ancient maps show the Gandhara-Takshashila region as Suren. And it was at the hands of these very Surens that Crassus met his nemessis. At the hands of the Indo-Parthian armies – led by a Suren general.

The Sassanian dynasty was able to wrest back and defend Persian dominions from the Greco-Romans, after setting up an elephants corps in their army – evidenced, for instance, by the carvings at Taq-i-Bustan. At one time, the Sassanian rulers had increased its elephant corps to 12,000 elephants.

End of Crassus

Laurence Oliver as Crassus in Spartacus

Laurence Oliver as Crassus in Spartacus

Less than 300 years after Alexander, Romans came close to Indian border. They were led by Marcus Licinius Crassus – estimated (or allegedly) worth 200,000,000 sestertii. A writer of classical journals estimated that to be worth about 7.6 million in 1860. Inflation adjusted, about 7.6 billions. Source of Crassus’ wealth – slavery, corruption, pillage, bribery et al. Crassus is more famous in history for three things – One, for his wealth, Two – for having crucified thousands of rebellious slaves on the Via Appia, after defeating Spartacus’ Slave Army and Three, as the man who funded the rise of Julius Caesar.

It is his death, that is usually glossed over.

Roman forces retreated, when confronted by Indo-Sassanian armies with Indian elephants. For the next nearly 400 years, Romans were wary of any large expeditions into Indo-Persian territories. 500 years later (nearly), with the help of the Indian elephant corps, the Sassanians stopped the Romans at Persian borders in 363 AD. But it is interesting that the enemies of the daiwas (enemy of devas are the asuras, in Indian scriptures), the Zoroastrians (followers of Ahura Mazda, speculatively Mahishasura) allied themselves with a Suren. A 1000 years later, the Sassanian army, had forgotten their lessons – and could not use their few elephants to full effect, against the Islamic Arabs.

The rise of religion in India

Without access to the ‘Indian thought factory’, after the fall of Takshashila, in 499 AD – by the Huna (dating as per Western history which calls them White Huns, Romans called them Ephtalites; Arabs called them the Haytal;  The Chinese Ye Tha) Buddhism soon became a religion. Buddha in India, was another, in a long line of teachers. But in the rest of world, Buddhism soon became a religion.

The destruction of Takshashila (Taxila) meant that students and scholars would need to travel for an extra 60 days to reach the other Indian Universities of the time. This was a traumatic event in the status of the Indian ethos – even the Asiatic ethos.

The decline of Taksashila marked the destruction, persecution and decline in Indian education, thought and structure. Fewer believers in Indian faith systems made the trip to India. ‘Consumers’ of ideological products from the ‘Indian Thought Factory’,  were left with Desert Bloc alternative products. Buddhism soon became a religion outside India. A few centuries after decline of Takshashila, Nalanda, etc. were also destroyed by Desert Bloc invaders.

Travels of Fah-Hian and Sung-Yun, Buddhist pilgrims from China to India (400 …

By Samuel Beal

58 Responses

Subscribe to comments with RSS.

  1. [...] the original post:  Destruction of Takshashila – a defining moment Author: admin Categories: Contemporary Art, History Tags: auction-sales, hands, History, hunas, [...]

  2. Dr. Jessie Mercay said, on August 5, 2009 at 12:55 pm

    India as a seat of learning is very facinating to me. I have associated with several Indian scholars (both Tamil) who say that Mayasura – the great architect, poet, and scientist) had an academy at around 10,000. This is an approximate date determined by astronomical evidence and texts that describe the first sangam to be at that time. He wrote the Pranava Veda, the Aintiram, the Surya Siddhanta treatis on astronomy, and over 30 other texts on science, mathematics, art, and architecture.

    Mayan aparrently had 12 major students who were well trained in mathematics, architecture, painting, herbology, ship building, geology, space science and a number of other sujects.

    He traveled from kumari continent through southern India and settled at the foothills of the great mountains in Brahmavarta. There is some thought that he was the designer and builder of Mohendo jaro. He is also said to be the person called Ahura Mazda (asura Mayan)

    His writings and teachings were said to span the world. In fact there is evidence in Mexico, Peru, Bosnia and throughout the world that Mayan’s teachings affected world culture beyond imagination.

    It would be too long a discussion here to go into more depth but from my research and from the research of my Tamil friends including the legandary V. Ganapati Sthapati (recent recipiant of Padma Bushan) India just might be the origin of world culture. The links are astonishing.

    The research you are doing is brilliant. It adds to the concept that India is the source of ancient and profound world culture and education. Please keep going. YOu reasoning and logic will dispell world ignorance.

    I would love to see you put all of this together for a book!

    Jessie

    • Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 7, 2009 at 3:18 pm

      One of the most ignored aspects of Indian history is the so-called ‘Dravidian’ contribution to Indian history. Apparently, it appears that there were significant developments in the ‘Dravidian’ culture – the Elam Empire and its influence in the Central Asia, right up to the Urals. Most Central Asian and Uralaic languages have significant contributions from Tamil /Brahmi /Kharoshti scripts and languages. India(ns) have ignored this phase of development – and it will come out sooner rather than later.

      But the importance of history is not archaeology or artifacts – but in learning from the past. And I think that is something that the Indian Puranas worked on. History as a moral lesson – is the thinking behind the Puranas. Unlike Western history, which over-emphasises dates, time, place, weather, climate, individuals – as a series of successive and random events.

      Pauranik historiography is focussed on the evolution and learning from those events. Mayasura makes some very intriguing appearances in the various Sanskrit texts. I am sure there is more where this comes from. There are more than 150,000 Indian ancient texts which are awaiting publication and translation. I am sure there once India gets serious about it, another 1 million such texts will come out.

      And that will be the day!

      • Aashish Singh said, on August 8, 2009 at 2:12 am

        ‘Tatha astu’

        Proud of you Anuragji.

  3. Dr. Jessie Mercay said, on August 7, 2009 at 4:54 pm

    I gave the incomplete date of Mayan’s journey through India and the rest of the world – it is estimated to be 10,500 BC

    Just during the deluge covering much of Asia that happened about 10,500 – 11,000 BC due to the melting ice caps.

    Dravidian culture was far more sophisticated than anyone can imagine.

    Mayan also had, among his 12 major students, a student named Maayan. It is he whom we are thinking traveled to Mexico and central Americas and taught Mayonic Science from which the Maayan culture of Mexico was born.

    The art and architecture of that region are distinctly related to Indian art and architecture. In addition many words are similar. For example, Chidambarum – the beautiful and ancient temple in Tamil Nadu is encoded with information that relates to Quantum physics and of course profound spiritual information. The Maayan culture has a sacred text called Chilam Balam- a most revered text of the Maayan culture.

    • Prabha said, on June 13, 2011 at 2:37 pm

      10,000 BC – MMM.. >> However – Mayan is ALSO said to have been in ATTENDANCE in Yudhistir’s Court – Not earlier than 3,200 BC along with Krsna and Arjuna and so has never been described as being 7,000 years old in Krsna’s time…..

      • Sridhar said, on October 19, 2012 at 4:45 pm

        If I recall correctly, it was his decesandant not Maya himself…

  4. [...] arising from this frustration, came Alexander’s wanton massacres at Takshashila – which thereafter limped along for the next 1000 years, but never to fully recover. Possibly [...]

  5. Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 8, 2009 at 3:02 pm

    date of Mayan’s journey through India and the rest of the world –

    I am unsure of what is the meaning of this? Was Mayasura an Indian, travelling through India, came to India, went from India?

    What is the dating logic?

  6. Dr. Jessie Mercay said, on August 8, 2009 at 6:59 pm

    According to the ancient texts, Mayasura also known as Mamuni Mayan, Brahmarishi Mayan, Vishwakarma, and Vishwabrahmin, came to the Indian mainland from Jamboodwepa a former piece of Kumari continent when Jamboodweepa was overtaken by the seas. He was dark skinned like Tamils. He wore dreadlocks and is depicted throughout India as Dakshinamurti at various temples. He taught in south India in an academy format. He presented his Aintiram (of which copies have been printed in modern time) during the first sangam which was conducted according to the literature around 10,000 BC in an ancient city called Madurai which was overteken by the ocean (the present day Madurai is not the same city). The approximate date is derived through the literature, the astronomical events, and the king who sponsored the sangam.

    That city was part of India at the time. Jamboodweepa, while part of Kumari Continent, may also have been part of India. Mayan taught in south India and moved north to Brahmavarta. (foothills of the great mountain range in northern India). His 12 major students were sent to various parts of the world to teach (including to Mexico and Peru) what might be called Mayonic Science and Technology. If you are interested in more information please go to http://www.aumscience.com and then click on the bookstore. Then click on a book called “Fabric of the Universe” if you say you are Indian and live in India and then remind me that I said I would send you a free copy of the book I will send it in pdf form. It is quite interesting. It outlines the principle teachings of Mayan and you will see the impact that those teachings have had on world knolwedge.

    For all practical purposes, Mayasura was an Indian I would think.

    In any case, it is India that has preserved his teachings and the first Veda which he cognized called the Pranava Veda. (only one copy exists)

    I hope this is helpful.

    • Sant said, on June 28, 2012 at 12:56 pm

      JAMBU ISLAND has Seven Regions. BHARATH, HAIMAVATH,HARI,VIDEH,RAMYAK,HAIRANYAVAT & AIRAVAT. Acharya Umasvati’s TATTVARTH SUTRA.

    • PRatik said, on July 7, 2012 at 9:28 am

      According to you “Mayasura” is not Indian Right? Please clarify.
      or
      Mayasura , came to the Indian mainland from Jamboodwepa a former piece of Kumari continent, then where is Kumari Continent? Kumari is India word right?

      • Sridhar said, on October 19, 2012 at 4:48 pm

        Kumari is a southern landmass (Yes,it is a part of India) that is now in the seas due to rising water levels. Mayan was born in that area and travelled his way to the Northern India spreading his knowledge along with other gurus.

  7. [...] The centres of Indian thought, Takshashila, Nalanda, etc. were destroyed by Desert Bloc invaders. First was the destruction of Takshashila. [...]

  8. raman said, on August 13, 2009 at 7:21 am

    this so called kumari kandam is nothing but another another attempt by those loony “dravidian” scholars and dmk wallas to increase Tamil antiquity to prehistoric times. all this rubbish had its orgin in the 19th century when european scholars (max mullers & his ilk) concoted the aryan – dravidian theory. after that all these koonky scholars have had a field day. Extant tamil books talk of land lost to sea, nobody mentions any such accounts of a fantastical “tamil” home. Lemuria, gondwanaland, Kumari Kandam, centra asia, & now Africa (read afro-dalit) etc. etc. etc. Anything but India, that is the thrust. and their is no such thing as a separate “dravidian” culture. all a load of rubbish.

    • Senthil kumar said, on May 11, 2010 at 2:49 pm

      ‘this so called kumari kandam is nothing but another another attempt by those loony “dravidian” scholars and dmk wallas to increase Tamil antiquity to prehistoric times’

      There seems to be no necessity to prove Tamil antiquity, since it is being proved all over the world (Read history books and not some fanatic magazines)

      ‘all this rubbish had its orgin in the 19th century when european scholars (max mullers & his ilk) concoted the aryan – dravidian theory.’

      Max Muller actually gave two rubbish theories about MST (Mother Sanskrit Theory) and the world famous AIT (Aryan Invasion Theory). Both have been disproved as fake or impossible. Now what do you have to say for that.

      ‘after that all these koonky scholars have had a field day’

      yes of course! they had their field day saying that the Sans language came from Europe, and people like you went behind them getting totally messed up about the true history of our country.

      ‘Extant tamil books talk of land lost to sea, nobody mentions any such accounts of a fantastical “tamil” home.’

      Mr. Raman, do you read history books, update youself of latest discoveries about history etc. or are you still relying of TV channels like cartoon network, pogo etc. See, you dont get information about the above in these channels. To know whether the above is true or false, you need to read a lot of books, get in touch with atleast one person who can read ancient texts and interpret the exact meaning.

      ‘Lemuria, gondwanaland, Kumari Kandam, centra asia, & now Africa (read afro-dalit) etc. etc. etc. Anything but India, that is the thrust.’

      Same as above….!!!!

      ‘and their is no such thing as a separate “dravidian” culture. all a load of rubbish.’

      You can call this statement as the ‘state of ultimate ignorance’. Not wanting to know the truth but blabbering. You dont wish to update yourself, so you say its rubbish.

      In fact, I tell you, there was a separate “Dravidian Culture” which influenced most of the Indian culture to what it is today, either the non dravidians accepted it directly or inspired it in its negative form, just like you do.

    • Sriram said, on August 26, 2011 at 9:35 pm

      Like, How the Western world rejects/fears Indian Tradition and History .. In the very same way ( or even more) Dravidian Tradition and History is rejected/feared by Some of the Scholars in India.

      • Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 27, 2011 at 7:38 am

        I would assume that these Indian ‘scholars’ are disciples of Western historiography. How Indian does that make them?

        You seem to imply that Dravidian History is different from Indian History. How is Dravidian History different or separate from Indian history?

  9. Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 13, 2009 at 10:47 am

    Anything but India, that is the thrust.

    Yes. I see your point. But just imagine. Entire Western historiography of the last 150 years becomes a waste. All these ‘great’ books on history will stand exposed as works of fiction – which they were in the first place.

    and their is no such thing as a separate “dravidian” culture. all a load of rubbish.

    I think, that again you are right. There is the Indian culture which has grown, evolved – and people seem to feel threatened by it. Hence the efforts to mangle it.

  10. [...] details (at the lower half of the page) Thomas was in Bharat under the service of the king of Takshashila (where he likely heard of the Nasarene Jews), after which he moved into the southern parts of [...]

    • Hernán Rubin said, on November 17, 2013 at 2:41 am

      As far as I know, Thomas is buried in Madras. I read an article in a BACK TO GOHEAD magazine inthe late 70s also, the magazine edited by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, that after leaving Taxila, Alexander had sent an ambassador there to build a column to honour Krishna. It was discovered by Sir Alfred Stein in 1901, so the article informed in the said magazine.

  11. answertoyourquestion said, on August 22, 2010 at 5:29 pm

    anuraag namaste

    i have some questions about caste system. have you
    done any research on caste system.
    in my state andhra pradesh there are komats who are black in color
    but they are high caste.they do business. they dont eat meat and do lots of religious stuff like vratas. they follow many rules and keep their houses clean.
    who were these komats.they also happen to know many points about our scriptures. they worship vishnu a lot and have their daughters named vaishnavi a lot.
    where they the dravidians that the tamil guy speaks of.
    i have heard tamils say that shiva is dravidian and vishnu is aryan. how can this be. arent shiva’s sites mainly in north india in kashi and himalayas.
    why are some brahmins black while some are white.
    people of many other castes are also of various colours rather than all black or all white.
    so then the racial aryan dravid theorists must be wrong right?
    has anyone studied all the castes and their histories and habits and found anything supporting distinct dravidian aryan theory.

  12. Amit said, on September 12, 2010 at 6:45 pm

    “There are more than 150,000 Indian ancient texts which are awaiting publication and translation. ”

    =

    Anuraag, could you please expand on the above and give more details of these texts? Where are these texts being stored, etc.? Thanks.

  13. [...] After the destruction of Takshashila, in 499 AD(?), without access to the ‘Indian thought factory’, Buddhism soon became a religion outside India. Buddha in India, was another, in a long line of teachers. Not so in the rest of the world.   Cut off from Indian philosophy, Buddhism soon stopped growing. [...]

    • ethicalman said, on July 7, 2012 at 5:58 pm

      Buddhism was wiped out by Islam..no question about it..the great centres of buddhism in Indian subcontinent were Gandhar, Kashmir, Swat, Bihar, Bengal, Somnath,Andhara pradesh etc.. and today these lands are hard core islamic..I hope u find the answer in it..

  14. admin said, on November 21, 2011 at 1:34 am

    https://twitter.com/#!/NishkaK/status/138402001942872064

    https://twitter.com/#!/NishBSM/status/157798531787272194

  15. narahari said, on January 5, 2012 at 8:44 am

    we lost too good university,it tells about how rich our education system was……

  16. samadhyayi said, on March 5, 2012 at 8:06 am

    sub-continent occupied by a complex network of peoples and states, who viewed Alexander as a new piece to be played in their complex political chess game.

    why do i get the feeling that this happened again with indira gandhi.
    who gets to be the loser by playing complex chess games.
    Vivekananda said that as long as India remains true to herself. all attempts made by foreigners are futile. India should remain true to her ideals.

    idealists are better and more powerful than all the chess game players.

  17. Andracottus said, on March 21, 2012 at 8:55 am

    Dear Anurang….

    I am very interested about the supposed Roman defeat at the hands of “Indo parthians”…..

    Wouldn’t just “Parthians” be appropriate?….From what I know NO ELEPHANTS were used in that battle………and those Parthians had nothing to do with India…Neither did the scythians under Tomyris ….

    I would be grateful if you would provide me your primary evidence of Indian hand in these wars……..,
    Love,
    Acharya Agnimitra

    • Anuraag Sanghi said, on March 21, 2012 at 9:44 am

      1. Tomyris was from the Massagetae /Massaga tribe. This tribe was to subsequently again make a lot of trouble for Alexander also.

      2. Most classical sources mention Indian elephants as crucial part of the Tomyris-Cyrus Battle. Classical allusions to Tomyris also show Tomyris with severed head of Cyrus in her hands – a key representation of Mahishasurmardini, a Durga representation.

      3. The Cyrus-Tomyris Battle happened around Dassehra - which is when Mahishasurmnardini is worshipped.

      4. Centred in the triangle of Takshashila, Kashmir to Turkmenistan, the Indo-Shakyas exist even today in India and Nepal. Many use their tribal name of Shakya as a surname.

      5. If you account for the fact that Persian replaces ‘sha’ sound with ‘ha’ sound, even the Hakhmanish Dynasty of Cyrus would be read as Shakmanish – or Shakyamanush. So, probably Cyrus was proposing a political-marital alliance to another Scythian tribal queen.

      6. The most famous is of course Shakya-muni – Gautama Buddha. And interesting are the verbal and figurative clues in Buddha’s life story. Buddha’s mother dreamt of Airavata (White Elephant) entering her womb – and Prince Gautama was born later. The linkage between elephants and India goes back to Indus Valley which is at least 2000 years before Buddha. So, was the Scythian Queen was impregnated by the idea of ‘India’?

      7. Buddha’s father was Shuddhodhana - meaning clean money. So, the Indo-Scythians differentiated themselves in how they got their money. Without slavery, I presume. And there are many more markers, that the biggest source of pain for the royal Shakya household, was when Gautama Buddha defected from the tribal Scythian values – and adopted the idea of Dharma. This becomes easy to understand if you equate dharma with Bharattantra.

      Coming to Parthians.

      There is a much confusion on Parthians.

      1. Indian classical texts which predate the settlement of exiled Ionian Greeks in Bactra, refer to elephant-riding Yavanas. Now we know that there were no elephant riding Greeks.

      2. So, possibly, there were Yavanas in that region before the Greeks came. Who also started calling themselves Yavanas - and their place in Mediterranean as Ionia.

      3. Similarly there are Parthavas who predate all these battles and history in Indian classical history.

      4. Subsequently there were clearly a Hellenized Parthian faction.

      5. And then there were the Parthian and Bactrian cavalry which rode with Xerxes in his wars with Greece; who fought with Darius under the command of Bessos at Gaugamela – against Alexander.

      6. The first historic evidence of the toe-stirrup is found in India.

      7. Famed cavalry fighters, the Indo-Parthians were among the first users of the toe stirrup – if not the inventors. Their most famous maneuver is known in modern times as the Parting Shot.

      Pls check out this post below which has numerous links – both modern and classical on some of the above aspects.

      3 Battles That Changed World History – And India

      • Andracottus said, on March 23, 2012 at 7:40 am

        Dear Anurang
        Thank you very much for your reply…..your effort and evidences are notably sufficient and I am fully satisfied…for if I had quoted your assertions and yet proved unable to back them..I would have looked stupid…

        I have a suggestion you are free to reject…..Why not explain in an article how Attila the Hun ravaged Rome while Yashodharman defeated and chased away Mihirakula the Hun…..who was far more cruel and wicked than Attila.(unless you have done it already)
        It would be a conclusive case to prove that Rome was not a challenge for the Empires that ruled from Magadh…

        Jai Aryavarta,

        Love,
        Acharya Agnimitra

      • Andracottus said, on March 23, 2012 at 8:51 am

        Anurang……you didn’t help me out with Surens army….Can you give me links proving presence of Indian elephants and mercenaries in Surens Service?……please?

        • Anuraag Sanghi said, on March 23, 2012 at 9:11 am

          presence of Indian elephants

          To the best of my knowledge, Suren’s Indo-Parthian army was a cavalry based – and known for its cavalry. Elephant-corps in Suren’s army, if any, are not usually given much importance.

          Have I said anything about elephants in Suren’s army?

          • acharyaagnimitra said, on March 24, 2012 at 4:03 am

            I thought I saw it in one of your posts…….pardon me if you are certain iam mistaken…..I ‘ll tell you if I find it….

            But Suren possessing Elephants doesn’t prove he was helped by Indian troops does it?

            This is the only thing in your post I find hard to accept and gulp

            • Anuraag Sanghi said, on March 24, 2012 at 4:28 am
              The Suren kingdom was what was known then as Gandhar region – as one of the links will tell uyou. Gandhar is the Balochistan-to-Afghanistan strip in modern geography.

              At that time part of India.

              But Suren possessing Elephants doesn’t prove he was helped by Indian troops does it?

              War elephants were an Indian monopoly – and if elephants in any numbers were used, there is surely an Indian connection.

  18. Anuraag Sanghi said, on March 23, 2012 at 10:27 am

    There is a mention that during the Armenian campaign by the Persian King, supported by Suren, many elephants were captured.

    Acta antiqua , Volume 43, Issues 1-4 |  Magyar Tudományos Akadémia |  Magyar Tudományos Akadémia., 2003 - Social Science

    Acta antiqua , Volume 43, Issues 1-4 | Magyar Tudományos Akadémia | Magyar Tudományos Akadémia., 2003 – Social Science

  19. Dr. Jessie Mercay said, on March 24, 2012 at 4:33 am

    I would really love to see you put all of your research into a book on the real history of india. it would be truly amazing. I just love what you do.

  20. [...] http://2ndlook.wordpress.com/2009/08/04/destruction-of-takshashila-a-defining-moment/ Like this:LikeBe the first to like this. By janamejayan, on August 19, 2012 at 2:07 am, under Islamic terrorists, Persecuted Hindus. No Comments Post a comment or leave a trackback: Trackback URL. « Massive rally in Hyderabad in support of North East Indians [...]

  21. RAYVI KUMAR said, on August 19, 2012 at 12:54 pm

    My Studies of Indian History only tells me one thing MUSLIMS RAPED AND PLUNDERED INDIA and DESTROYED CENTRES OF LEARNING and enslaved women and children after murdering their men …

    SEE ANOTHER UNIVERSITY AS RATNAGIRI AND LALITAGIRI ….DESTROYED BY MUSLIMS …

    https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.280102522042686.79916.100001288223976&type=3

    https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.280177502035188.79926.100001288223976&type=3

    That sums up my knowledge

    • Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 19, 2012 at 1:24 pm
      Two Things: -

      One: This happened well-before the birth of Islam – so your comment is completely irrelevant.

      Two: You may have your own favorite invader. To me they are all bad.

      Some are worse – like the British.

      • pillayravim said, on August 19, 2012 at 1:38 pm

        I am speaking here in my album about islamic invader and u may choose to ignore it

      • acharyaagnimitra said, on August 20, 2012 at 4:35 pm

        I would not say that its wise to equate all the invaders.

        Islam was never like other adversaries.

        What India suffered under Islam does not compare with anything else any nation has suffered. When Will Durant called it ” The bloodiest story in human history”, he was saying the truth,

        Consider 2 facts…..

        1. The British would never have defeated the Marathas or the Sikhs but for a very complex tale of treachery by muslims that culminated in the Third Battle of Panipat

        2. If it were not for Islam…….Europe would never have overtaken India in any field of Science or Mathematics . India would have remained the most advanced nation

        Islam served Europe in 3 ways.

        1 Destroying Indian Universities and centuries of scientific temper.

        2. Transmitting Algebra, the decimal and place value system, Trigonometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Medicine to Europe through the Florentine merchants.

        3. Completely weakening Indian society and forces prior to the British conquest.

        ISLAM WAS ALWAYS THE PROBLEM

        • Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 20, 2012 at 7:52 pm
          @acharyaagnimitra –

          1. Islam is late 7th century AD phenomenon.

          2. As per modern Western version of history, which is based on negligible evidence, Takshashila was destroyed end-5th century AD. Some 150 years before the birth of Islam.

          3. My own examination of historical evidence leads me to believe that Takshashila was devastated by Alexander – a barbarian soldier, whose armies were routinely defeated in India.

          4. This in end 4th Century BC.

          That is 1000 years before Islam was born. I am clueless in what manner are you trying to link Takshashila with Islam.

          • acharyaagnimitra said, on August 24, 2012 at 3:21 pm

            I did not try to link Takshashila and Islam.

            I saw you equating all the invaders. And I merely emphasized the inherent wickedness of Islam and its instruments.

            I apologize for the impertinence.

          • Itishree said, on August 25, 2012 at 2:49 am

            Why so defensive for desert blocs?? Who destroyed somnath temple then??

  22. prabhapati das said, on August 27, 2012 at 5:12 pm

    Destruction of many places on earth ALL at the same time in 5th C – due to cometary catastrophe – ( PS Veda: all planets are gods, all comets are demons as all maruts are flaming stone debris

    • Sridhar said, on October 19, 2012 at 4:58 pm

      yeah, sure… dumbass

  23. admin said, on April 3, 2013 at 5:49 pm

  24. aboriginalpress said, on April 3, 2013 at 6:07 pm

    Reblogged this on .

  25. vam said, on July 21, 2013 at 1:03 pm

    Reblogged this on Echoes In Truth and commented:
    This article presents a summary glimpse of the overlap of India’s history with that of Greece and Persia, over a span of a millenium, specifically around that great university at Takshashila.

  26. gopi said, on October 31, 2013 at 6:40 pm

    Dear Anuraag,
    Your 2nd look at Indian History is fabulous. Though late in the game, I am glad I came to know about your articles. With the sad state of affairs in India, where generations of students are still being taught AIT/AMT without as much a caveat, your articles come as a ray of hope to millions like me who want to have a 2nd look at Indian history.
    One question-
    Ambi is the king of Takshasila. Alexander forged an alliance with him for logistic support. All good.
    Than why would Alexander destroy an academy in the allied country?
    Even if we assume Purugupta as Porus, who is Ambi than? How do we account for Ambi’s reign of Takshasila?

    Please understand that I am not questioning your perspectives on the Macedonian invasion of India.
    Let’s say I am playing the role of Devil’s Advocate here:).

    Gopi

    • Anuraag Sanghi said, on October 31, 2013 at 8:24 pm

      Ambi is the king of Takshasila. Alexander forged an alliance with him for logistic support. All good.

      My own feeling was that Alexander paid a tribute to Ambhi for safety: –

      1. Of probably his kingdom’s borders. His vast Persian Empire was open to attacks from the Indians side and he needed to buy peace.

      2. For safe passage through Ambhi’s kingdom.

      I have linked in this post a 2ndlook at Alexander’s ‘campaign’ in India. All these questions have been dealt at length in that post.

      why would Alexander destroy an academy in the allied country?

      You must remember that Alexander was shaped by the culture that killed Socrates for questioning the ruling theology of Greece. So, killing Brahmanas came easy.

      Unlike in India where Brahmanas were intellectuals and could not be touched.

      The Brahmanas were coordinating kshatriya actions against Hunas, Shakas, Pahlavas, et al. So Alexander needed to remove these people.

      if we assume Purugupta as Porus, who is Ambi than? How do we account for Ambi’s reign of Takshasila?

      Ambhi could very well have been a feudatory /tributary under the Gupta kings.

      Remember in Mahbharata kings from thousands of miles away came to battle on the sides of Kauravas and Pandavas – which was not their fight to begin with.

      • gopi said, on November 1, 2013 at 9:38 pm

        Thank you. Your articles have me hooked. I am on a reading spree of all your posts.
        Thanks again.

    • Hernán Rubin said, on July 11, 2014 at 3:26 am

      Dear Gopi, infact, it wasn´t a Macedonia invasion. Alexander sent an Ambassado to Takshshila, after he left it. He wasn´t a Macedonia as fact either but a universal man. He was the disciple to Aristotle!.

  27. manoj said, on July 8, 2014 at 3:28 pm

    Dear Anurag,
    Thanks for all your articles for making making my journey of relearning Indian history through critical angle, starting from the elective courses in my engineering curricula, gain a firm perspective! It ties so many loose end and I cannot thank you enough for that.

    So are you pointing at towards the change in the sheet anchor of Indian history here by mentioning a discrepancy of 800 years in the “currently taught” and the “emperical evidence” based history?

    Thanks,
    Manoj

  28. Hernán Rubin said, on July 11, 2014 at 3:21 am

    Congratulations to everybody here, who are signing such wonderful thoughts on Indian Memorabilia, Vedic knowledge and so. Beautiful Anurag. Thanks so much.
    Hernán Rubin.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 1,053 other followers

%d bloggers like this: