3 That Changed History – The Amarna Letters

Posted in Current Affairs, History, Uncategorized by Anuraag Sanghi on December 23, 2007

A Thousand Miles up the Nile

A hundred and twenty years ago, in 1887 AD, a peasant woman of Tell el-Amarna, now a small village on the Nile and midway between Cairo and Luxor, was digging for sebakh (a form of natural, domestic fertiliser). Instead, what she came up with were 380 clay tablets from beneath the floor of a ruined mudbrick house. These were the “Amarna” letters – a treasure trove of clay tablets. These clay tablets, that survived, are now divided between the British Museum, the Berlin Museum, and Cairo Museum.

Tushrutta Letter to Egyptian PharoahWhat were these letters

These were later identified as part of Tutankhamen’s lost “The Place of the Letters of the Pharaoh” or ‘Pharoah’s House of Correspondence’. These letters were from notables of the Levant or Pharaoh’s record copies of replies – including letters to both Akhenaten and his Queen Nefertiti. These letters were seemingly “lost” when Amarna was abandoned early in the reign of Tutankhamun. What these clay tablet letters showed was a significant Indo Aryan connection.

Enter The Mittanis

One series are letters written by a Mittani king named Tushratta (meaning ” of splendid chariots”, similar to Dashratha meaning ” of ten chariots”) writes to his son-in-law, Amenhotep III, the king of Egypt ( the letter reads much like an Indian father-in-law’s letter will). Amenhotep married Tadukhepa, Tushratta’s daughter.

In these letters Tushrutta reminds Amenhotep, how his father, Thutmose IV had sought marriage seven times, with Tushrutta’s daughter, before this marriage to, Tadukhipa, was agreed upon. Similarly, in order to marry Hattusil II’s daughter, the Amorite King Putakhi agreed, in the treaty of alliance for a specific clause “to the effect that the sovereignty over the Amorite should belong to the son and descendants of his daughter for evermore”.

What is it, about these Indic princesses, that made them so sought after?

Tushrutta’s (was an Indo-Aryan king) ‘grandson’ (son of his son-in-law) became Akhenathen (ऐकःनाथें, 1352-1336 B.C) – who formed a new monotheistic religion (apart from Sanskrit, in current Hindi also, one God is एकनाथ). He was one of the first few kings who differentiated between his kingliness and the Godliness of Aten (The One). His chief wife was Nefertiti – who was given an important position – much against the male centred kingdoms and religions that were to follow. He founded the city of Akhetaten (The Horizon of the Aten), at the modern Amarna – where these tablets were found. His mother was Tiye. And the name of their eldest daughter – Sita (full name Sita-amen; Sitamen's Nameamen after the Sun god Amen Ra).

Queen NefertitiAkhenathen died in his seventeenth year on the throne and his reforms did not survive for much longer. His co-regent and successor Smenkhare, died after a short reign and power passed to the boy king, Tutankhamun (originally Tutankhaten).

Tutankhamen – The Boy King

During his reign the city of Akhetaten (modern Amarna) was abandoned and Amun and the other gods were reinstated. In Western terms, the “Atenist heresy” was overturned, Akhenaten´s image and names were chiseled from his monuments and his sun temples were dismantled. Modern Amarna, till then a glorious city, crumbled back into the desert and his name (and that of his two immediate successors) was left out of the Kings lists produced shortly after.

After Tutankhamen

Akhenathen’s successor for a short while was Tutankhamen (yes, of the Howard Carter fame). Tutankhamen was Akhenathen son (not by Nefertiti) by Kiya (possibly the mother of Smenkhare and Tutankhamun).

Tutankhamen (1336-1327 BC) ruled for a short while, and there are numerous theories swirling regarding his death. His widow, Queen Ankhesenamen, was widowed at an early age. The Kingdom was adrift. Akhenathen had cut away the rulers from the powerful nobles and priests with his new religion. And the Queen Ankhesenamen, sent an emissary to another Indo Aryan kingdom in that area.

And that is another story. And another nail in the old history coffin.

Tutankhamen’s dynasty (18th dynasty) was succeeded by Ramesses of the 19th dynasty. Ramesses name can also be transcribed as RaMeSein. We also know that Sin was the Assyrian moon goddess, popular in that area, hence Ramesses actually will be translated to Ramachandra in Sanskrit!

Who were the Mittanis

Were some Egyptian dynasties possibly related to the various Indian ‘chandravanshis’ ruler families?

The Mittanis, one of the at least three Indo Aryan groups (the other two were the Hittites and Elamites) were major players in West Asia sphere. The Mitanni worshiped Vedic gods, were connected by marriage across several generations to the Egyptian 18th dynasty – the most prominent dynasty during whose rule Egyptian power, prosperity and culture peaked – and to which Akhenaten belonged.

The first Mitanni king was Sutarna I (Sanskrit meaning “good sun”). Mitanni kings were named (who followed Sutarna-I) Paratarna I (Sanskritic meaning “great sun”), Parashukshatra (the Egyptian Parashurama, “ruler with axe”), Saukshatra (“son of Sukshatra, the good ruler”), Artatama or Ritadhama (“abiding in cosmic law”), Tushratta, (Dasharatha), and finally Matiwazza (Mativaja, “whose wealth is prayer”) during whose lifetime the Mitanni state was subordinated to Assyria.

The daughter of King Artatama was married to Tuthmose IV, Akhenaten’s grandfather, and the daughter of Sutarna II (Gilukhipa, – “khipa” of these names is the Sanskrit “kshipa,” night) was married to his father, Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BC), the great temple builder (alike the focus on temple construction in South East Asia 1000 years later).

Queen SitamenIn his old age, Amenhotep wrote to Dasharatha many (7 requests are documented and evidenced) times wishing to marry his daughter, Tadukhipa. It appears that by the time she arrived Amenhotep III was dead. Tadukhipa married the new king Akhenaten and she became famous as the queen Kiya (short for Khipa).

The Egyptian kings had other wives as well. Akhenaten’s mother, Tiye, was the daughter of Yuya, a Mitanni married to a Nubian. Nefertiti was, possibly, the daughter of Tiye’s brother Ay, who was to become king himself. The 18th dynasty had a liberal dose of Indic blood.

Other Linkages

There was a Sun Temple at Karnak in Egypt – and there is a sun temple at Konark in Orissa even today. There are many Pharaohs named Sheshonk /Sheshenq under various dynasties. Shashank शशांक (meaning moon) is common name in India even today – which ties in with the many names that Pharoahs took . This name also is also similar to Sheshnag, शेषनाग, the infinite serpent on whom Vishnu rests – and Egyptians revered snakes.

RenenutetApart from these archaeological finds, there is huge supporting body of philological and linguistic evidence (based on which most modern historical theories have been postulated) which point to significant presence and influence in the Middle East – between Turkey to Syria and Iran; right upto the borders of modern sub-continental India.

The Loyal Black Rat

Who is a witness to these path breaking adventures and long, lonely journeys across Asia, by these interpid Indians?

The Black Rat (Rattus rattus).

As per a new report by an Australian researcher, the Indian rat migration began 20,000 years – a corollary of human travel, and not natural migration. The route of this spread is through the Middle East – and later to Europe.

Speculatively speaking

When enterprising Indian traders set out from India and slowly spread across the Middle East to Turkey – spreading their languages, religion and social systems, travelling in caravans of bullock-carts. And ships of the fabled land of Ophir, from South India, known as Oviyarnadu, came to West Asia, carrying ivory, peacocks, monkeys, sandalwood (says the Bible).

These loyal rats travelled with the interpid Indian traders, on their ships and bullock carts, is how I think these rats spread. This is yet another part of the jigsaw – in which the Amarna letters, the Boghazkoi tablets and the DNA sampling of Indians (and Indian rats) disprove the AMT /AIT theory. These incidents point to another version of history.

History Re-write

Ancient history as we know it today is at the cusp of a major re-writing, Three independent developments, in the last 100 years completely invalidate existing versions of history – and will clear the way for a major re-write.

Current (euro-centric) history basically starts from: –

  • Sumeria and Babylon (current day Syria, Iraq) where the world’s first civilisations were born.
  • From there the action moved to Egypt. The Rise of the Egyptian civilisation thereafter.
  • Meanwhile, Aryans from Siberia and Central Asia came to Iran and split in two directions. One came to India, defeated the Dravidians, set up the Vedic civilisation. Indians did not count much for much. (After all, they were not interested in massacres, killings, loot, plunder, persecution).
  • The other branch went to Europe. Greece and Rome were the other Aryan civilisations. The Greeks and Romans learnt a few things from the Egyptians – but were generally great people and the rest is history.
  • The Chinese civilisation started in 1000 BC and were also great guys.
  • But the best were the Greeks and Romans – and modern Europe is the successor of Rome and Greece.
  • Red Indians, Africans also have some history – but generally nothing much about these guys.

Some parts of this history are false. New history based more on archaeology and modern science is definitely getting re-written – especially about India, Middle East and Europe.

The first major re-write happened quietly. In this post, I will lay out the first major re-write.

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10 Responses

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  1. Chinese History said, on December 23, 2007 at 7:08 pm

    […] 3 That Changed History […]

  2. dan » 3 That Changed History said, on December 23, 2007 at 8:55 pm

    […] Check it out! While looking through the blogosphere we stumbled on an interesting post today.Here’s a quick excerptThese were later identified as part of the contents of the ‘House of Correspondence of Pharaoh’. These letters were from notables of the Levant or Pharaoh’s record copies of replies – including letters to both Akhenaten and his Queen … […]

  3. ehab tawfik concert said, on January 15, 2008 at 3:34 pm

    ehab tawfik concert

    I Googled for something completely different, but found your page…and have to say thanks. nice read.

  4. Anuraag Sanghi said, on January 26, 2008 at 11:42 am

    Ehab Tawfik – Keep rocking! Hope your concerts and music are doing well! Thanks for your comments.

  5. hinduismglance said, on August 6, 2009 at 7:31 pm

    Eknathan was married to Lord Rama’s sister.

    • Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 7, 2009 at 9:50 am

      Now apparently, Ramachandra does have a sister – who is named Santha. Santa is listed in the parampara in the Bhagavata-Purana 9.23.10.”. But she married Rishi Rishyashringa. And not Eknathan. Where is the source of this information?

      Many Indian puranas are coded, indicative, allude to history. Now Bhagavatha Purana was puportedly written somewhere between 300 BC (the core) to 800 AD (accretions).

      As far back as 1798, the Asiatick Researches By Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), were able to trace references to the Assyrian Queen, Semiramis’ disastrous campaign /invasion of India in the Indian Puranas also.

      Does the Bhagavatha Purana allude to Rim-Sin (which translated will read as Ramachandra in modern Indic languages) was the brother of Akhenathan’s wife?

      And not the Raghu Ramachandra?

      Very interesting!

  6. Eve Clarity said, on July 27, 2012 at 9:17 pm

    You say this is a first post; I’m looking forward to the next.

    I am currently re-writing history. Check out my new Egyptian chronology on my website.

  7. farang said, on March 6, 2014 at 5:02 pm

    Isn’t Kiya a Vedic goddess of Reeds? I am sure she is, and that ties into the very solid “Moses” myth regarding Akhnaton. Additionally (staying on the ties to India subject), Tushratta names Akhenaton “NepuKudurriEser” in letter to Tiye.
    This refers to the Babylonian Kassite (Aryan) god Nabu: “the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded.” Moses.

    Lets go farther: Sargon of Akkad, father named “Akki, the Water Drawer”, that is Aquarius, the Water Bearer. Sargon, like the later “Moses” is floated in reed basket in river, etc, etc. Akki Naton. Named after Sargon’s father, and just performing an “astrological/mythical role” I believe the royals liked to play out? Sargon’s given name was Sagara. I believe Saqqara was named after him. His “son” is Manishtushu, who I believe refers to Vedic Manu, his grandson “Naram-Sin” (moon-worshiper. These “sons” can be none other than Egyptian First Dynasty Menes(h) and Narmer. “Minoan” Minos.

    Myths, from India. They didn’t even work up a sweat traveling that short distance.

    I think you are very much correct in your “Aryan Distribution Theory.” (ADT) However….until it is shown that Gobekli tepe culture sprang up through India, we can’t be 100% certain. Me? I think they were “proto-Hittite” due to similarities I perceive in their rock carvings and depictions. In other words, Aryan, from India.

    I further speculate that the Illiad is in fact “Puranic” in style and substance, was an ancient “Scandinavian” Aryan/Vedic myth. Based on book regarding Baltic origin of Trojan War: Ullyses is Ullo, the Archer. “Orion”

    There were indeed “Blond Aryans” too, practicing proto-Vedic/Vedic worship throughout northern Europe. To me, Narmer looks depicted as a Viking. Maybe from Tarsus. Not sure the northern Vedic culture ever called themselves “Aryan” though. Maybe they just absorbed the culture, married into a few Indian families. The Indian Aryans cultures were specific in the labeling of themselves as “Aryans.”

    “Proto-Viking” might be better term for northern “European” Aryans. Sea-going traders.
    I have a feeling that a cooling trend in northern Europe forced them south, the warm spell had led to rapid over-population, and that weather change was a major factor in the “Invasion of the Sea peoples” which I believe ran concurrent with the Mahabarata. Hunger drove them.

    Lastly…these two foreigners Yuya and Ay in the 18th dynasty. Please note the dates: @ 1400 BC. Please check the Indian king list of the Puru dynasty, circa 1400 BC. Yuyu and Ayu. One follws the other in both locations.

    These could be different names then “Yuya” and “Ay?” That would be a coincidence unlikely to happen.

    Let’s not forget: it is simply an “educated guess” what the vowels are…Yuya could very well be “Yuyu.” I’ve seen it translated 5-6 different ways, as I have Yahweh.

    In fact, I am sure “Yuyu of India is the “YHW” referred to in the “Shasu of YHW” military overlords of Babylon and Egypt. Active circa 1400 BC

    “Yahweh.” “Father of the God.” Yuyu, Puru king. Is the “Kheperu” scarab beetle symbol really “Ka of a Puru?” Could that have phonetically “drifted” into “Hebrew?”

    Josephus: “Jews we are called in Rome, in India “Kallani.” Hittite court “officials” were called “Khilani.”

  8. farang said, on April 9, 2014 at 1:08 pm

    Regarding the “akhena” PDF you link to? I’d like to demonstrate exactly how I make these links from India to Egypt, using sources such as yours.

    “Here is an extract from a letter by Tushratta to Amenhotep III, Akhen-
    aten’s father: \My father loved you, and you loved my father still more.
    And my father, because of his love, has given my sister to you… Behold,
    one chariot, two horses, one male servant, out of the booty from the land of
    Hatti I have sent you. And as a gift for my brother, Five chariots and Five
    teams of horses I have sent you. And as a gift for Gilukhipa, my sister, one
    set of gold pins, one set of gold earrings, one gold idol, and one container of
    sweet oil I have sent her.” Another letter accompanies the image of goddess
    of Shaushka of Nineveh (Ishtar), Tushratta’s ista-dev, sent to Amenhotep
    III to restore him to health during illness. Ishtar is Venus, and the Vena
    hymn of the Rigveda (10.123) anticipates her Mesopotamian mythology.

    “Ish-Dev” Istar/Devi. At one time, “Proto-Jews” worshiped a god named “Devi.” David. ISTAR. According to this link, the letter was written in “Northern Akkadian” which was lingua franca back then. Northwestern Akkadian? I hold to be “Hebrew.”

    As I have offered before: This is the origin of the “Queen of Sheba” myth. Please note: Istar is Venus. The planet and the goddess associated with. So, the “Star of David” is Venus, I Star Deva. He is actually a she.

    David is “the father” of “Solomon.” TaeShub (aka Tae Sheba, once I posted that online, Wikipedia removed that alternate pronunciation from that webpage.) is the husband of Shauska/Istar. Tushratta sends a statue of her, along with “booty” to his bff Amenhotep III, to “cure what ails him.” She is the goddess of fertility, too. aka “Easter”/Ester. I think old Amenhotep III, the “great debaucherer” might have encountered “plumbing failure” in his relative old age….so “he gets “Sheba” with child”…success!

    “She brings much treasure for Solomon.” See above from akhena PDF link. Velikovsky had it correct, for once: “Sheba is a person (god), not a place.”

    “Solomon” is the Jebusite god Shalmanu. That surname lingers on today among Jewish people as “Shulman/Schulman.” I think Amenhotep III adopted that name and declared himself “god on Earth.” Schlomo.

    If like me, you think Gobkli tepe was a proto “Vedic” culture….tehn you really should consider reading my assertion that the “Holy Grail” myth has it’s origins in the culture that built Goebkli Tepe. And it is all in images….and written history…..and myths. it winds from 9000 BC Gobekli Tepe, to Sumeria, to Babylon then to 18th dynasty Egypt….to a curious “grail” found @ 130 years ago. Analysis (Wikipedia) states it was made by Thracian silversmiths circa 200 BC – 100 AD. Has what I consider almost photographic prof (Wikipedia) proof that Joshua was Tut was “Jesus” right down to being wrapped as a mummy by Cohen Gadol priests. With SAME IMAGE found on TUT’S MUMMY above it. Same images found in list above.

    There can be little doubt: this was a well-known myth, with a ceremony involved. Suggestion? Sacrificing the Passover Lamb.

    BTW: The king you label “Saukshatra?” You also name as Sausatar? This akhena link says “Sau” means “Son of.”

    Wallace Budge, in his “Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. 2” stated that “Sau-sa-tar” is an alternate name, “avatar” of Osiris. He also states Osiris is also Iah. The Moon. Ahmose I was really Iahmose I (Wikipedia.)

    Charles Pope of domainofman” correctly points out this is “Esau.”

    So, “Sausatar is “Son of a star.” Sirius? All astrology. Not that “heavenly movements” can’t flatten earth….perhaps on a recorded history of Precession. However, tying the history to the myths can lead to really clumsy conclusions.

  9. Hemant Suri said, on January 16, 2015 at 12:03 pm

    Brilliant and I don’t know why it sound like the truth….. and hopefully it is the truth (or rather congruent to it)

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