India Imports Hazardous Waste

Posted in Business, Current Affairs, History, language, Media, Uncategorized by Anuraag Sanghi on July 31, 2008

West Dumps Toxic Stuff

Kamal Nath has NOT finally caved in, after putting up a courageous fight for the last 4 years. Kamal Nath’s position, for the last 4 years, (correctly), was, “The Indian farmer can compete with the American farmer, but not with the U.S. Treasury.” But under the carrot of the US-India Nuclear deal, the fear was that US would probably get their way at the trade talks.

But there are 3 imports of the past that has caused India tremendous harm. India’s (and the world’s) problem can be laid at the doorstep of these 3 imports – including widespread corruption which causes so much anguish. These three imports continue to be in use widely across India – and remain unidentified. No barriers have been put up against these specific imports – and nothing is being done against such future imports.

The 3 Imports

These 3 dangerous imports are WORDS. Religion, Slavery and Free. These three imported words are at the root of modern India’s problems. Does this strike as an exaggeration?

The Problem With Religions

The Problem With Religions


Historically, India had no religions. Modern religions are a construct of the Middle East – and given birth to the 3 major religions of the world. Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In India, the belief structure centres around Dharma – धर्म.

The difference between dharma and religion? Major!

For one, religion is about worship – and there are many others differences. Method of worship (how you worship), object of worship (what you worship), frequency of worship (e.g. every Sabbath; five times a day), language of worship (what you say, in which language), etc.

The cornerstones of modern religions from the Desert Bloc are One God, One Book, One Holy Day, One Prophet (Messiah), One Race, One People, One Country, One Authority, One Law, One Currency, One Set of Festival – the root of most problems in the world. From this Oneness, we get the One Currency, One Language logic  – a fallacious syllogism. Once you accept One, you will accept all others.

Indian worship practices are infinite. Even non-worship to is acceptable – for instance, the Charvaka school of Indian philosophy was atheistic and did not prescribe worship. Structure and deviation from worship practices are a non-issue in Indian dharmic structure. Dharma has no equivalent in the ‘Desert Bloc’ vocabulary of religions. Dharma is the path of righteousness, defined by a matrix of the contextual, existential, moral, pragmatic, professional, position, etc. Dharma is more than moral and ethics.

The really big difference is the holy books – Judaism, Christianity and Islam have one Holy Book each. No deviations. Indian dharma tradition has thousands which are more than 1000 years old – at last count.

Dharma Chakra In The Ashoka Pillar

Dharma Chakra In The Ashoka Pillar

And What Is Dharma?

That is the question that all Indian rishis, munis, holy texts, folklore try and answer.

There are many Indian texts on the path of Dharma – the Bhagwad Geetha (most famous), the Shanti Parva (dharma of kings), the Upanishads. Gautama Buddha established the Dharmapatha (now known as Dhammapada – the Path Of Dharma). It is Dharma that Indians belief systems focus on – and worship is only a (in some cases no) part of it. Buddhism focussed on the Dharma-chakra – a virtuous cycle of right actions leading to greater goodness in the world. This is represented in the Ashoka pillar – adopted by modern India as its symbol. Buddha in India, was another, in a long line of teachers.

Colonial narrative traces the destruction of Takshashila in 499 AD, by the Hunas (Western history calls them White Huns, Romans called them Ephtalites; Arabs called them the Haytal;  The Chinese Ye Tha). Western ‘historians’ have ascribed the fall of Takshashila, in 499 AD – supposedly,  at the jhands of White Huns, a Central Asian, nomadic tribe, roaming between Tibet to Tashkent, practicing polyandry.

Mohammed Bakhtiar Khilji destroyed the Universities and schools of Nalanda, Vikramshila, Odantapura and Jagddala around 1200 AD. This marked the destruction, persecution and decline in Indian education, thought and structure. Believers in Indian faith systems stopped coming India. ‘Consumers’ of ideological products from the ‘Indian Thought Factory’,  were left with Desert Bloc alternative products. Buddhism soon became a religion outside India.

Religion is about founders and followers. Judaism had Moses, Christianity had Jesus and Islam had Mohammed. The founders of the ‘desert religions’ exhorted their converts to follow them and promised them deliverance.

Dharma is everyone’s concern, timeless – and has no founder. Gautama Buddha did not set out to establish a religion. He was interested in establishing the Dhammapada. So, did Mahavir. As did Guru Nanak. The definition (legal, conceptual, theological) of Indian dharmic systems as religion by outsiders created divides where none existed. There is no Hindu religion. We strangely call ourselves Indians. Why are we calling ourselves by a name given to us by others. We have our own name to call ourselves by.

Shaikh Nuruddin aka Nand Rishi - Patron Saint Of Kashmir

Shaikh Nuruddin aka Nand Rishi - Patron Saint Of Kashmir

Islam In India

The largest concentrations of Islamic believers in India (were able to establish Islamic worship systems) are in Bengal, Kerala, Gujarat and Kashmir – which did not witness large scale invasions from Persia and Arabia. These 4 areas were ruled (either completely or largely) by Hindu kings. There is significant evidence that Islamic beliefs in these 4 areas came through trade – Gujarat, Kerala and Bengal were major port cities where Arab traders were frequent visitors and settlers. Kashmir was the hub of the ancient Silk route.

The Sufi movement was Kashmir’s contribution and held sway over the large parts of Islamic believers. It is also these 4 geographies that were the least affected by the invasions of Mahmud Of Ghazni, Mohhammed Of Ghor, Timur, et al. These were also the provinces that were the most distant from the Muslim Delhi sultanates – and possibly had seen the least of proselytizing forces. Hence, the belief that Islam was spread in India largely by force is a possibly false.

It was this Indian ambivalence (even indifference) towards forms of worship which made it easy for any form of worship to take roots. It is also the reason why the sub-continent and Indic nations (i.e. the sub-continent and Indonesia) have today the largest followers of Islam.

Thus India has no religions in the ‘desert bloc’ sense of the word – and all Indians are believers in Dharma. And the path of Dharma is for each to discover and follow.

India must uproot the very word religion. We must understand the difference between dharma, religion and mazhab. Religion divides – dharma unites. Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism Sikhism were not, but in the danger of becoming religions. The Colonial Governments made these Indic dharmic quests into religions. Which Indian text describes its followers as Hindus? Did Guru Nanak call his disciples Sikhs. India has allowed outsiders to label us and dictate our response as per those labels.

Indian languages have no word for religion.

Raja Harishchandra - Raja Ravi Verma

Raja Harishchandra - Raja Ravi Verma


India has no word for slave either.

The word गुलाम ghulam is an import. दास dasa is an attendant, or a servant – but not a slave. Draupadi was a daasi to the Queen of Virat desh. The Pandavas became daasas at the Court of Viraat. Raja Harishchandra became a daasa to a Chandala. These were kings who became daasas. Nala, (Damayanti fame), the King of Nishada, became a daasa – but not a slave.

Slaves are sold and bought – involuntarily. There were organized markets for slaves in slave empires; organized traders of slaves (a famous one being the Barbarossa Brothers). Slavery (capture, kidnap, sequestration, transport, trade and transfer, re-capture of human beings) continued in the “desert bloc” till the 20th century. In the Indic territories, it was an inherited institution – and last seen in the Hittite rule around 1000BC.

Faced with West Asian reluctance to give up slavery, Indo Aryan rulers disengaged politically from West Asia and Middle East from around 1000 BC. Possibly, the slave revolt of Egypt by Moses itself was a result of the liberalising laws of the Hittites. Hence the fade out of the Indic rule from the Middle East – but the continuation of Buddhist influences, trade and peoples contact.

Reformers In India

After the slave revolts in the Middle East, India was witness to major renewal movements. More than a 100 Bodhisatvas and 24 Jain Tirthankaras were major figures in India’s renewal after the slave revolts in the Middle East. Modern history, influenced by Western historiography, recognizes only the “ahimsa twins” – Gautama Buddha and Vardhamana Mahavira. The “ahimsa twins” – Gautama Buddha and Vardhamana Mahavira were both princes of royal blood – Prince Siddharth and Prince Mahavira.

Initial adherents to the Buddhist camps were rulers. Their methods of proselytizing was also aimed at the ruling class. Ashoka The Great sent missions with his daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka – where Buddhism was established. The logic – slavery could exist with State protection. Indic teachers of dharma focussed on the rulers to ensure that slavery did receive state patronage.

Guru Nanak Dev came from from the upper caste family and his focus was to end fueding on the basis of caste and creed. His first converts were from upper class families cutting across religions – and hence the opposition from some of the Mughal Kings.

Gandhiji was from the upper caste and the first item on his reform agenda was end to the “bhangis” carrying faecal refuse on their heads. His initial focus was social reform and less of anti-British activities.

Half the world today follows Indic religions and culture. The other half follows the “desert religions”. The development trajectories of these two halves has been significantly different. The motivations, behavioural and acceptable civilisational norms for these blocs are different – and mostly opposite.

Slavery In India

Slavery in (Greater) India, disappeared from about 1000 BC. Zilch. Nyet. Non. Nada, nada, 否, nr, nein, Αριθ, いいえ, 아니다, não.

While the Levant and the Occident continued with slavery for the next 3000 years, till 1900 AD, in India (referring to the Greater India, including the Hittites and Mitannis) after 1100 BC, slavery vanished. Compared to the retributive and vengeful Hammurabi’s code, the Indic rulers of Middle East (the Hittites, Mittanis and Elamites) already had a more liberal and humane legal system.

In the late and middle 19th century, capture by British agents to capture indentured labour, (slave traders and slavery by another name) was also the reason, that possibly, the myth of ‘kaal-paani’ became prevalent and Indian traders preferred buyers to come to them. This also accounts for the system of unarmed combat that travelled with Buddhist monks to China – and became Chinese Kung Fu, or the Kalaripayattu (in Kerala) or the system of लठैद (combat practitioners using ‘lathis’ – bamboo sticks).

Slave Religions Promote Slavery

The 3 ‘desert religions’ instead of reforming slave societies, just enabled the transfer of slave titles. Freedom meant old slaves became the new slave masters. Slavery (capture, kidnap, sequestration, transport, trade and transfer, re-capture of human beings) continued in the “desert bloc” till the 20th century. Slavery was sanctioned by the religious authorities and books of these 3 ‘desert religions’.

Non-political Indian role in West Asia and Middle East continued to grow in terms of trade and learning. Babylon became a part of Alexander’s empire (and then the Roman Empire). This slave reform and distancing of Indic rulers from slave societies was led by Indian reformers like Buddha and Mahavira. This happened not around and after 500 BC as determined by Western dating logic (which needed to fit the Aryan Invasion Theory, The ‘evolution’ of Greek and Romans) – but around 1000 BC.

When the followers of Mani (a teacher of largely Buddhist teachings) were encouraging the slaves to revolt and declare themselves free, administrators of the teachings of the “Lord of lords, and King of kings.” (Revelation 17: 14) at the Council Of Gangra, 325 AD, approved of slavery. Arabs slave traders were active in Congo – till they were replaced by Europeans.

Slave Memory In Indian Society

By the 10th century, Slave memory faded out in India. The Indic word for slave owning cultures, asur, became disconnected with slave ownership. References in Indian classical literature about servitude – like the Harishchandra story.

The Jatakas - At The Borobudur Temple

The Jatakas - At The Borobudur Temple

Jataka stories (mainly considered as children’s stories in the West) are a reflection of social mores, realities- and also cautionary tales for adults. This Jataka story (click on the link) refers to a “demon’ (another word for a slave trader) and cautions travellers and merchants about slave traders. This ‘demon’ kidnaps the merchant – but leaves the goods behind. Similarly, the story of Bali, the righteous Asura king, who was sent to the patalaloka, by Vamana, makes sense, the moment ‘demons’ are defined as slave-owners and enslavers.

Historically, trade in India is governed by शुभ लाभ ‘shubh labh’ – and hence Indians have not been major players in drugs proliferation (unlike Japan, the West in which traded Opium in Korea and China) or in slave trade. In modern times, though a power in computing industry, India is not a big player in spamming or in software virus.

What Did This Do In India

3000 years ago, India went ahead and created a new economic model without slavery. The Occident and the Levant were using slaves till 20th century. Middle East’s labour laws even today smack of slave owner mentality.

Asuras & Devas

Asuras & Devas

Asuras as ‘dravidians’, ‘foriegners’ or ‘others’ is an Euro-interpretation – which seems xenophobic. This further dimmed Indian perception of slavery – and instead created divisions within Indians. On the contrary, asuras could even be Indians – and even righteous kings like Bali. The entire Ravana demonisation was not about Sita being abducted. The outrage was the ‘asuras’ i.e. slave traders, trading her.

Similarly, the story of Dadhichi, from whose bones the vajrastra was made to kill the ‘demon king’ Vritrasur. Dadhichi was a former king, son of Atharvan, and Vritrasur was a brahman who became an asura. Or the ‘Nahusha’ story, where a mere mortal was made Indra, to defeat the ‘demons’. This also adds another layer to the Rajput opposition to Mughals. And the Rajput women committing Jauhar. In modern era, India’s unceasing opposition to South African apartheid was another example.

Unremitting and unceasing opposition to slavery – that is what Indian history is about. In fact, there is no Sanskritic word for a slave. Ghulam is an imported word, daas /daasi is an attendant. Slavery as a concept does not exist. Similarly, the word free does not exist in Sanskrit.

There is no free lunch

The third major import is free. Sanskritic language and logic has no word for free. Muft, free, are all imported words. This has created a corrupt political system which keeps bribing voters with freebies. It has distorted trade with freebies. In Indian commercial practice, there were systems for giving away free. That was called “chakda” – which is ‘make good’. So if you bought 100 mangoes, you got 116 or 156 – as the local system was. To make good for defectives, rottens fruits and vegetables. But nothing was free.

The Corruption

So , when did this corruption start.

The answer goes back to 5000 years ago. When Sanskrit language was invented. Yes. Invented. And there is no Sanskritic equivalent for slave, religion, free. There is no Sanskrit word for these three imported words.

What! What Has Sanskrit Got To Do With This?

Sanskrit is an artificial, synthetic, revolutionary language – unlike all other languages in the world; which are Prakrit (natural and evolutionary). The next set of artificial languages came into this world after 5000 years later.

About 50-75 years ago, the next set of artificial languages were invented. These are the computer languages. Between the invention of Sanskrit and the computer languages , there was no other culture which created an artificial language system.

What Makes Sanskrit Special?

Sanskrit is nothing but a database system with millions of database tables and a system of linking concatenated data records. Every word is a table (I studied Sanskrit 30 years ago, and if I remember correctly, it is a 3 column x 8 row table). And all words then combine with each other as per these table rules. And all Indian languages (most European languages, too) are derived from Sanskrit. While most of us do not know Sanskrit or understand it’s structure consciously, we all use Sanskritic structures everyday.

India should put up trade barriers against such imports. Kamal Nath unfortunately cant do much about this. This is one thing that each one of us will have to do.


15 Responses

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  1. Galeo Rhinus said, on July 31, 2008 at 3:47 pm

    Excellent as always.

    Are there any specific references to slavery before 1000BC east of the Sindhu?
    What about the vedic times?

    The “sur” vs. “asur” conflict existed even in the vedic times, I think.

  2. Joe Rempley said, on July 31, 2008 at 10:18 pm

    Bush started his presidency at war with China, which hid behind 9/11. Not only has petroleum and gasoline tripled during these years, but so has steel and other commodities. All of this is because China, unlike India, has no market to regulate usage. And don’t forget the “Honkers Union” root of SPAM attacks (google this). William Temple in “of Heroic Virtue” (1690) claimed Chinese governance exceded the wildest dreams of western utopians. Henry Wallace found FDR’s silos in the Confucian “Ever Normal Granary”. Medieval calendars marked the world’s end at 1452, when Mehmet was the first calvaryman. the scond in 1696 was Peter Alexeevic Romanov, the third was 1951 ESCC, the last is China. Note the cognates of Magog: Magyar, Mongol, Mughal, Hungar, Uyghur, Hangook to gain real understanding.

  3. Anuraag Sanghi said, on August 1, 2008 at 8:55 am

    Parag – Regarding evidence of slavery, pre-1000 BC, in the area East Of Sindhu river, is complex periodization problem.

    Is Gandhara (which is Modern Afghanistan) a part of India? Is the Greek Arachosia /Arakhosia (modern West Afghanistan /East Iran) part of India? Is Kekaya part of India? What part of North East is India? What are the dates of the all the Pali, Brahmi, Prakrit manuscripts?

    Modern history is a Western invention – with an unstated propaganda objective. Indian ‘puranas’ and ‘itihas’ follow different methodology. Hence, to create a cross-referenced, comprehensive database is at least a few decades away.

    Otherwise (eminent and) competent researchers like Subhash Kak make a mistake of equating dasas with slaves. Excellent linguists-historians like Malati Shendge assumes Aryan Migration /Invasion Theory into her hypotheses. After this, the enormity of the issue hits you.

    Based on inertia and social design, it would be difficult to imagine, that Indians woke up in 1000 BC and decided to abolish slavery. Instead, a pre-existing, anti-slavery bias, was re-affirmed repeatedly, is a more feasible hypothesis.

  4. Galeo Rhinus said, on August 3, 2008 at 12:32 am

    During the vedic times – prior to 1000 BC – the Asuras – whose texts are available in modern Iran often referred to the “Hapta-Haindva region” or the “Sapta-saindhva” region where the “sura” people lived. I think the limits of India to the west are reasonably well defined. Modern Iran was the home to Mazda Ahura (Asura) as well…

    While the thesis that the Asuras were slave owning people seems very plausible, that does not dismiss the association of a concept with geography… while the boundaries might have shifted with time – history seems to indicate that afghanistan (up-gana-sthan – allied states) were almost always the limit of direct Indic rule… even if protectorates might have expanded into neighbouring areas.

    …however, regardless of this – is there any evidence of slavery in vedic references? or any other references at all? Why arbitrarily say after 1000 BC… why not say *never*?

  5. […] in the Indic bloc. Indian pauranik and classical history begins to make sense only after the concept of ‘asuras’ as a verbal cue for slavery and slave masters and slave traders is used. Sanskrit and Indic languages have no word for […]

  6. […] There are also no historical records of slave trades, prices, quantities, ownership anywhere in India. In fact, Sanskritic Indian languages have no word for slaves. […]

  7. […] Without access to the ‘Indian thought factory’, after the fall of Takshashila, in 499 AD – by the Huna (dating as per Western history which calls them White Huns, Romans called them Ephtalites; Arabs called them the Haytal;  The Chinese Ye Tha) Buddhism soon became a religion. Buddha in India, was another, in a long line of teachers. But in the rest of world, Buddhism soon became a religion. […]

  8. basudev said, on April 24, 2010 at 5:01 pm

    excellent! do you have any book exclusively on slavery? its history and economics?

  9. Anuraag Sanghi said, on July 8, 2010 at 7:54 am

    If there was one book, which gave all the information about slavery .. do you think slavery would exist.

    But there are various books and sources which are linked in my posts – which you use and see.

  10. […] became a religion outside India. Buddha in India, was another, in a long line of teachers. Not so in the rest of the world.   Cut off from Indian philosophy, Buddhism soon stopped […]

  11. […] India Imports Hazardous Waste (via 2ndlook – View From A Square Prism) September 5, 2011 HinduIDF Leave a comment Go to comments West Dumps Toxic Stuff Kamal Nath has NOT finally caved in, after putting up a courageous fight for the last 4 years. Kamal Nath's position, for the last 4 years, (correctly), was, "The Indian farmer can compete with the American farmer, but not with the U.S. Treasury." But under the carrot of the US-India Nuclear deal, the fear was that US would probably get their way at the trade talks. But there are 3 imports of the past that has caused India … Read More […]

  12. p p (@pinkyp18) said, on February 7, 2012 at 7:00 pm

    Great article. But I can not accept the fact that Islam was not spread by force. “It is also these 4 geographies that were the least affected by the invasions of Mahmud Of Ghazni, Mohhammed Of Ghor, Timur, et al. “………..Don’t you know about Somnath temple (in gujarat) was destructed by Ghanzi. Even in kashmir, you will find ruins of temples done during Islamic rule….(ex. 1)Gateway of enclosure, (once a Hindu temple) of Zein-ul-ab-ud-din’s Tomb, in Srinagar 2) Martand Sun Temple) . Can you tell me how many muslims we had in India before Islamic invasion? First invader, Muhammad bin Qasim, whose onslaught of hindus in Sindh region is well known. Since we and muslims both have anti-west sentiment, does not mean we have to take their sides every where.

  13. p p (@pinkyp18) said, on February 11, 2012 at 8:59 am

    This is history of Islam in India, and you say Islam was not forced. I do not understand your let go attitude for Islam. This is first toxic of desert bloc, which entered India.

    1. Muhammad bin Qasim— built a mosque over the remains of the original temple at Debal and later in towns of Nerun and Sadusan, After each battle all fighting men were executed and their wives and children enslaved. One fifth of the booty and slaves were dispatched back to Hajjaj and the Caliph. Chach Nama also records instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun. When Mohammed bin Qasim conquered the lower Indus basin in 712 CE. Thus, in Multan, according to the Chach-Nama, “six thousand warriors were put to death, and all their relations and dependents were taken as slaves”.
    2. Mahmud of Ghazni—– His campaigns across the gangetic plains are often cited for their iconoclastic plundering and destruction of Hindu temples such as those at Mathura, Dwarka, and others. Mahmud of Ghazni sacked the second Somnath Temple in 1026, and looted it of gems and precious stones and the famous Shiva lingam of the temple was destroyed .[15]Later the temple was demolished by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1706.[16]
    3. Muhammad Ghori—- 20,000 Hindu prisoners were slaughtered and their heads offered to crows at Kol (modern Aligarh), Kalinjar and Varanasi.
    4. Aurangzeb—- banned Hindu festival of Diwali, placed a jizya (tax) on non-Muslims and non-muslims suffer humiliation from overbearing Jizyah collectors, killed the ninth Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur, demolition of Somnath Temple (Between 1659 & 1707 he destroyed more than 10,000 temples).

    5. To Sikhs–Martyrdom of Ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadurji by Aurangzeb, Cutting into two pieces of Sikh Bhai Mati Das ji, true follower of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, by Aurangzeb , Burning alive of Sikh Bhai Sati Das ji, disciple of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, on orders of Aurangzeb , Torture to death of Sikh Bhai Mani Singh ji, a preacher of Dharma by Governor of Lahore, Zakaria Khan , Burying alive of third and fourth sons of Sri Guru Govind ji by Mughals , Torture to death of Baba Banda Singh along with 740 Sikh Warriors.
    6. Destruction of Universities of Ancient India by Muslims- Nalanda University (Library burnt for 6 days and Nights), Vickramasila 800 A.C, Odantapuri (Second oldest of India’s universities after Taxila), Somapura University, Jagaddala University, Vallabhi University, Sanskrit College of Visaladeva
    7. Sultãn Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (AD 1389-1413)—- The Tarikh-i-Firishta records that Sikandar persecuted the Hindus and issued orders proscribing the residency of any other than Muslims in Kashmir. He also ordered the breaking of all “golden and silver images”.
    8. Mysorean invasion of Kerala—– Badroos Saman Khan, Tipu Sultan said “four lakh Hindus were converted to Islam” ; Extermination of Nairs—after invasion of Tipu Sultan from a fortress in Kuttipuram, orders given to Nairs to a voluntary profession of the Islam or a forced conversion with deportation from the land, etc. ; Destruction of Hindu temples by the Mysore forces of Tipu Sultan – Some of the other famous temples looted and desecrated were as follows: Triprangot, Thrichembaram, Thirunavaya, Thiruvannoor, Calicut Thali, Hemambika Temple, the Jain Temple in Palghat, Mammiyur, Parambatali, Venkitangu, Pemmayanadu, Tiruvanjikulam, Terumanam, Vadakhumnnathan Temple of Trichur, Belur Siva Temple, Shri Veliyanattukava, Varakkal, Puthu, Govindapuram, Keraladhiswara, Trikkandiyur, Sukapuram, Maranehei Temple of Aaalvancheiri Tambrakkal, Vengara Temple of Aranadu, Tikulam, Ramanathakra, Azhinjalam Indiannur, Mannur Narayan Kanniar and Vadukunda Siva Temple of Madai.

    • Anuraag Sanghi said, on February 11, 2012 at 10:30 am
      Islamic looters and bandits, with heavy cavalry made frequent raids into India. India was fertile ground for capturing slaves. Pls remember that slavery was the most ‘lucrative’ trade in the Desert Bloc till about a 100 years ago. Before the trans-Atlantic slave trade from Africa to Europe, Americas and Caribbean, the biggest slave trade was (in my estimate) from India to Central Asia.

      All these looters and bandits that you list above used religion for their political and economic benefits – which is anyway and anyhow how religion was invented.

      Anyone can be lucky or unprepared – depending on which side you are looking from. Lucky from the bandit point of view or unprepared as seen by the ‘victim’.

      None of these raids lasted or could establish a government.

      Remember India has a unique military advantages –

      War elephants, which had no answer till the mass usage of cannons.
      Gunpowder – India was the largest producer of gunpowder elements till 20th century.
      Large cavalries – India was the world’s largest importer of horses, till 18th century.

      So, military defeats of India were a rarity. Many of these accounts that you refer to are exaggerations to impress home populations about the ‘bravery’ of these bandits.

      British colonial narratives has tried to make it look that India was an eternal loser – which is simply not a fact. Trust this clarifies. This aspect has been dealt with in considerable details in various posts.

      • p p (@pinkyp18) said, on February 11, 2012 at 5:07 pm

        How can we remove desert bloc religions from India’s soil and re-establish system of dharma? Christianity and Islam have gained a lot of footholds in India, it would be very difficult to remove them. India’s dharmic system won’t mind, if muslims pray 5 times a day or christians like holy spirit…..I am trying to say, we already have infinite ways of worship, so adding them won’t make much difference. However, teaching of Christianity and islam are in conflict with our system of dharma. We can accept different ways of worship, but how can we accept their teaching? Their teaching complete contradicts our notion of dharma. Is it possible to remove desert bloc elements from Islam and Christianity in India and establish system of dharma? Or we have to completely discard Islam and Christianity? Muslims’ birth rate and illegal migration from Bangladesh are increasing followers of Islam And Christian missionaries are increasing followers of Christianity……..so our dharma model is in decline, and desert bloc in rise.

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