Dating agenda in ‘modern’ history

Posted in European History, History, India, Media, politics, Religion by Anuraag Sanghi on February 21, 2010

Annales Veteris Testamenti, a prima mundi origine deducti: una cum rerum asiaticarum et aegyptiacarum chronico, a temporis historici principio usque ad Maccabaicorum initia producto. Jacobo Usserio Armachano, Digestore

Annales Veteris Testamenti, a prima mundi origine deducti: una cum rerum asiaticarum et aegyptiacarum chronico, a temporis historici principio usque ad Maccabaicorum initia producto. Jacobo Usserio Armachano, Digestore

09:00 hr, 23rd October, 4004

Western history and historians, then and even now, have tried to fit Indian civilization into a Biblical calendar frame.

Western historians needed a Day-zero date, the date of creation, to build their historical narrative. Various Western ‘scholars’ and ‘historians’ worked backwards and arrived at a date. The date was 4004 BC.

For all those, to whom the year 4004, was not precise enough for the beginning of mankind, Earth, history, further refinement was supplied – Monday, October, 09:00 hr. This chronology estimated that God created Earth in 4004 – based on Ussher-Lightfoot chronology. A situation where

each generation of Orientalists accepting almost without question or examination the dates handed down to them by the first pioneers, whose thoughts and imaginations were cramped with the limits set by the archbishop Ussher. (1906, from The theosophical quarterly, Volume 4, By Theosophical Society in America).

Max Muller, the ‘Orientalist’, whose template for Indian historiography is followed till date, significantly, had no choice but to use the Ussher-Lightfoot chronology. Till 1857, Britain through the East India Company, followed Spain and Portugal, who had planted the banner of Christ in heathen and pagan lands’. The Chairman of the Directors of the East India Company, Ross Donnelly Mangles, piously declared in the British House Of Commons –

“Providence has entrusted the extensive empire of Hindustan to England, in order that the banner of Christ should wave triumphant from one end of India to the other. Everyone must exert all his strength that there may be no dilatoriness on any account in continuing in the country the grand work of making India Christian.”.

It took a revolution in Haiti to start the end of the Spanish Empire – and the 1857 Anglo-Indian War to end the English campaign to ‘convert the heathen’ and ‘civilize pagan Hindoos.’

His 'calculations' were followed even in the 20th century

His 'calculations' were followed even in the 20th century

Egypt rules

In all this, Egyptian history was the hub, around which the spokes of Western historical constructs rotated. Hence, there has been resistance to changing Egyptian dates. Even with

“helpful data such as the record of a solar eclipse recorded in an Assyrian document that can be equated by modern astronomers with the one that took place on 15 June 763 … Before 1400, chronologies are much less precise, largely reflecting the poorer survival of useful evidence. As a result the debates over an absolute chronology for both Egypt and Babylonia are much fiercer.” (from From Egypt to Babylon: the international age 1550-500 BC; By Paul Collins; pages 10-14)

Traditional Western historians from both the schools don’t want to change – as whole libraries of history based on theories of Western superiority will become irrelevant. At least the dates will.

This resistance to change is an especially important consideration for dating of the Egyptian artefacts and history. Radio carbon dates for Egyptian history were dismissed as “errors have recently been revealed by comparing carbon-14 dates with known Egyptian Dynastic dates … carbon-14 estimates for Egypt are from several hundred to a thousand years too late …

The Greek miracle

The Greek miracle

Change in sources

From around 500 BC, sources also change. After the Greek Dark Age, modern Western history assigns greatest weight to Greek sources’.

After 150 BC, as the Greeks disappear, entire races, nations and dynasties mysteriously vanish. History becomes speculation. The fact that the Greeks themselves disappear after 150 BC, is not important, as per Western historiography.

For instance, instead of the disappearing Mittanis, it has been suggested that the Mittanis and the Medes were the same. Phoenicians make an entry and the Canaanites disappear – even though they are both the same.

In the Canaanite avataar, from being a race of Semitic people, Phoenicians become a trading and sea-faring people of unknown origins. Similarly, a hypothesis that instead of disappearing, Hittites became Lydians, is ignored. Another study proposes that Cyrus and Tiglath-Pileser III were the same.

The Dating Imbroglio

Historical dating till the 1960’s was based on a matrix of theology, politics, colonialism, archaeology, books, records, events, cross-indexing, astronomy. In most cases, all these factors were NOT present, resulting in a significant element of guess–work – and a major element of vested interests.

In 1960s, came new tools to assist archaeological dating system – the the Carbon-14 and the Bristlecone Pine tree-ring system – as well as others. Even this has been distorted by calibration, aberrant data and acceptable readings – all the time maintaining a veneer of secular and objective history.

Indian chronology – Deconstructing Indian dates

Behind this dating ‘logic’, is a man who is much admired (wrongly) in India today – Max Mueller. For instance in Max Muller’s colonial propagandist history, when it comes to Indian triumphs over Semiramis, she becomes half-legendary. Yet in another book, the same Semiramis becomes one of ‘the great conquerors of antiquity.’ In a matter of a few pages, he dismisses Indian history completely, in a half-Hegelian manner.

All these theories rest on the axle of philological dating. Based on imprecise evidence, tools and estimates, of when various texts were ‘composed’ and ‘reduced’ to writing, and ‘frozen for ever’, which are based on stylistic changes in Sanskrit language. Looking at construction of Sanskrit language and texts, the logic of oral ‘composition’, ‘reduction’ to writing, ‘frozen for ever’ is a wrong model – and creates these false debates and models.

Sanskritic compositions were team-based effort, (picture Sage Durvasa travelling with his 1000’s of disciples), a vast body of argument and debate  (Kahoda-Vandin-Ashtavakra debate) over many hundreds – if not thousands, of years. Vishwamitra, Vyasa, Vashishtha, Narada were the most well-known of the wandering monks of many Indian texts and scriptures. Appearing and disappearing at various points of time and events.

They could not have been the same person, because they appear at the (near) beginning of Rahgukul (Vishwamitra at the Trishanku incident) and at the (near) end of Raghukul (the marriage of Sita and Ram) – spanning more than 30 generations of kings. Was Vashisht, Vishwamitra and Vyasa, a titular  system, decided by a collegium of peer rishis. The ascension of Vishwamitra from a rishi-to-rajrishi-to-brahmarishi supports this.

The difficulty that Western historians have is the internal consistency across the vast body of texts and scriptures. For instance, Western historians trace Indian own significant achievements in astronomy to ‘import’ from Babylon – via Greece! David Brown, an ‘expert’, on Mesopotamian astronomy and astrology, goes further and asserts that the “evidence for transmission to Greece and thence to India in the Hellenistic period was overwhelming.” (from Learned antiquity By Alasdair A. MacDonald, Michael W. Twomey, G. J. Reinink).

What is this ‘overwhelming’ evidence that he presents? Nothing, but the usual dating mix ups. Considering “it unlikely that it was the work of one person’, analysts are surprised, ‘considering its internal consistency”.

Worried? There is more, where this from, Mr.Brown.

The fallacy of the Vedic age

There never was a Vedic age. Not in the sense that Western historiographers slot and exclude various developments. This presupposes linear, directional, phased, and centralized development of the Vedas. Assuming a command and control system, it has a non-empirical base.

For instance, this assumes that the Vedic age was dedicated to the Vedas – and all other texts developed after that.

Fact is that the Vedas depend on the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh; along with the Devatas and Asuras. The structure of the Devas, Asuras, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh can really be understood through the Upanishads,  the epics and the Puranas.  And we have not even begun on development of an ‘artificial’ language like Sanskrit  (as opposed to Prakrit).

Pauranik structures, Upanishadic debates, technical compendiums, the twin epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata were parallel developments and coeval – albeit at different stages of evolution, structure, style, pace and direction.

While other cultures struggle with low or high double digits of ancient texts, India has lakhs of them. This vast body of textual creation, has not happened anywhere else in the ancient world. The very assumption that it happened in India, in a matter of a few centuries – while the Aryans, Greeks, Persians, Scythians, Tocharians, Huns, were conquering India.

During these ‘invasions’, the conquerors were kind enough to leave Indian seers, sages, munis and rishis alone so that they could carry on with the composition of these texts. Massacre of the males, raping of the women and enslaving the rest, in the meanwhile continued in the parallel. And after these massacres and conversions, these invaders were of course kind enough to convert  to an Indian way of life – and melt away from the centre stage of Indian history.

To pass of these caricatures as attempts to phase Indian culture are artificial and unproductive. and simply not history.

Alexander, Porus, Takshashila and Gymnosophists

At the time of Takshashila’s decline in the 5th century, a significant Gupta king was Purugupta – successor of Skandagupta. Written records from Purugupta’s reign are few and far in between. He has been variously named as Vikramaditya, Prakashaditya and of course as Puru /Pura Gupta.

The most authentic link to his reign is the Bhitari seal inscription, (near Ghazipur, in modern UP). The Bhitari seal provided proof of an elongated Gupta reign – than the Skandagupta-was-the-end-of-Gupta dynasty dating. Currently dated between 467 AD, Purugupta’s reign saw many border wars.

Purugupta’s reign saw Vasubandhu, a known teacher of logic and debate, become famous and Huien Tsang reported on the debates based on Vasubandhu’s texts. Today Vasubandhu’s texts exist in Chinese and Tibetan languages – the original Sanskrit volumes remain untraceable. Purugupta also restored the gold grammage in the ‘suvarna’ coins, probably debased in Skandagupta’s time, possibly due to the cost of the fighting the Hunas.

Alexander and the Indian 'Gymnosophists' - Medieval European drawing

Alexander and the Indian 'Gymnosophists' - Medieval European drawing

Alexander’s ‘debates’ with Indian Gymnosophists was possibly with Vasubandhu’s disciples. Is it that the Porus identified by the Greeks, Purugupta? Were the marauding soldiers, mentioned in Chinese texts, and in Indian texts during Purugupta’s times, mercenary Huna soldiers hired by Alexander to replace the ‘deserting’ Greek’ soldiers, on the eve of his Indian ‘campaign’? The 8000 Brahmans that Alexander massacred were possibly teachers at Takshashila. The dating of the Gupta dynasty to end of the 5th century AD, is probably off by about 800 years.

State propaganda as history

The two point agenda was the maintenance of the Greek Miracle – motivated by desire to use history as a colonial and exploitative tool. And the other item on the agenda was the proving of the ‘correctness’ of Biblical events – which was motivated by a racial agenda to prove Western racial superiority.

By the time Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was officially announced, (interestingly, to coincide, with Boghazkoi decipherment), colonial history was set – and IVC at that time, was force-fitted into these datelines and ‘structures’.

Modern history, is now caught between the Greek Miracle History School, which has stuck to the Sumer->Turkey->Egypt->Greece->Rome->Europe–>West-Is-The-Greatest Axis and the Velikovsky School which is stuck to proving that the Bible is indeed the Last & Only Word.

Understanding Western history and agenda becomes impossible unless these motivations are remembered.

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By Asher Kaufman

14 Responses

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  1. satyask said, on February 23, 2010 at 6:04 am

    Very interesting blog… a friend sent me the link to it…

  2. Parag Tope said, on February 23, 2010 at 7:23 pm

    History is always written with an agenda.
    There are times when the agenda is benign, but far too often it is not. Dig deeper, put the context in perspective, and very often a dark underbelly reveals itself. In that darkness exist, many real stories that were not only covered up or buried, but also distorted and destroyed.

    The first paragraph of the Preface from Tatya Tope’s Operation Red Lotus.

    As you point out – the entire dating debate follows an agenda. In order to bring sanity and logic to this manipulated history – this agenda needs to be exposed.

    • S. KRISHNAN said, on April 21, 2012 at 3:56 am

      Not only exposed – but we have to rewrite the chronology and details in a logical manner which fits in with facts – facts which are real, hard, unchallengeable facts.

  3. […] 09:00 hr, 23rd October, 4004 Western history and historians, then and even now, have tried to fit Indian civilization into a Biblical calendar frame. Western histori … Read More […]

  4. HinduIDF said, on February 5, 2011 at 2:30 pm

    Just great.I know about this date line and you have put it in words….Great work .Please keep writing your articles and yes Please plan to write a book

  5. kalyan said, on February 6, 2011 at 1:46 am

    See Indus Script Cipher. http://www.amazon.com/Indus-Script-Cipher-Hieroglyphs-linguistic/dp/0982897103/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1296869710&sr=8-1

    The decryption of the script gives a lead on the formation and evolution of all Indian languages.

    Congratulations for a forceful presentation of historical truths. Today, River Sarasvati cannot be wished away; she is ground truth. kalyanaraman

  6. Ranjith said, on February 6, 2011 at 7:04 am

    Every Indian has the RIGHT to know about what you have written. But the problem is that the quality of English and the content are too complex for a common man to understand. If I cannot understand this, I am sure that 98% of the population cannot understand this. Please make this blog more understandable to the common man.

  7. Krishan said, on February 6, 2011 at 9:19 am

    Excellent article.
    Western ?Indologists I do not like this word always give wrong dates for our Hindu scriptures and even about historical men and women to down play their importance knowingly.
    Adi Jagat Guru Shankara Achayria was person of !st century but they always mention that he was born in 7-8 century ,sadly some of our Hindus (RSS and VHP people) repeat the same myth in public and private because of their ignorance.
    Our Hindu Scripture has been stolen from India and locked away in the western libraries of the world.Those books are not available in written form to Hindus and Hindu scholars in India.This our heritage and we have right to have that back.This knowledge not only good for sanatan Dharma but all the humanity.
    I have set up a organization to to scan them and print them( digital printing).
    If any one would like to be part of this organization please get in touch with me.Haribol.

    • S. KRISHNAN said, on April 21, 2012 at 3:59 am

      Yes. Please let me know how I can help.
      Thanks and regards.

  8. S.Jagannatha said, on February 12, 2011 at 6:06 pm

    We have to re-analyse the word so called “Vedic age” and there is no iota of doubt. But I do not agree with your opinion of Sanskrit’s “artificial” status.Sanskrit is not atificial. It is natural language.Declensions, thousands of varieties/ exceptions in forms, so many complications in gender system, Sandhis- all these prove naturalistic character of this language.Esperanto is artificial and not Sanskrit.Linguists say that Sanskrit belongs to Indo-European language group.If other languages, belong to the same category, are not artificial, how Sanskrit alone shall be declared artificial? (I do not see any problem in placing Sanskrit in the category “Indo-European”.) Another opinion of yours that Vedas’ depending upon Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshvara needs clarification as well justification.

  9. iragavarapu narasimhacharya said, on February 13, 2011 at 7:01 am

    The article,its tagged websites,and the comments posted by different scholars are very
    apt and true in letter and spirit. I too whole-heartedly endorse the views expressd.
    On seeing this aticle I am struck with agony that the prestige of the Great India has been undermined from time to time by the foreigners whom we adore as true democrats and friends in letter and spirit.Here I am reminded of the fact that at the time of the Britishers leaving India our Indian rulers neglected to take back our India
    House Library where-in we find certain naked historical facts as narrated in this article.
    I congratulate the author of the article and the commentators for their views with an open mind.

  10. Arun Kumar Upadhyay said, on February 16, 2011 at 2:32 am

    In a sense Vedic age always existed and still exists-it is called Sanatana. Western writings from Greeko-Roman to British is vast manipulation to prove own superiority and others inferiority. Even in 300 BC, Sumerian astronomer Berosus has written that Greeks distort and forge history to prove their superiority. All Greek historians have commented about India that it is only country where all people are indigenous, India had always been self-sufficient, so it had not captured any other country in past 15000 years (before Herodotus). That indicates that attacks by Alexander to British was only for looting. To counter indigenous theory, excavation was one in Indus valley whose conclusions were pre-determined irrespective of any find that Indians came from outside and Vedic civilization started there. This refers to capturing of Kraunch Dvipa by Karttikeya in 15800 BC when Pole had shifted away from Abhijit and rains started with entry of sun in Dhanishtha. Maxmuller copied 15000 years and changed it to 1500 BC as starting date of Vedic civilization. There is no other basis of this arbitrary chronology. Such manipulations and forgeries have been standard feature of western history. After that 15000 years was replaced by the word ‘never’.
    Puru at time of Alexander could also be a king of Puru clan-descendants of Pandava kings. Alexander attack is at time of end of Andhra and start of Chandragupta-1 period. Purugupta is slightly later.-Arun

  11. vihang bhatt (@bhattvihang) said, on July 23, 2012 at 4:57 pm

    can you cite the Chinese and Indian texts “during Purugupta’s times”? It will be more helpful.

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